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Dense arrays of single-crystal silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been used as a platform for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of small molecules, peptides, protein digests, and endogenous and xenobiotic metabolites in biofluids. Sensitivity down to the attomole level has been achieved on the nanowire surfaces by optimizing laser energy, surface(More)
A three-dimensional finite element model of premaxillary bone and anterior teeth was established with ANSYS 13.0. The anterior teeth were fixed with strong stainless labial archwire and lingual frame. In the horizontal loading experiments, a horizontal retraction force of 1.5 N was applied bilaterally to the segment through hooks at the same height between(More)
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