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OBJECTIVE Adaptation to ischemia by brief episodes of ischemia and reperfusion (preconditioning) of the heart protects the heart against sustained ischemia, where the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-B (NFkappaB) appears crucial for the protection. Preconditioning of the heart may even be evoked by brief episodes of ischemia and reperfusion in(More)
OBJECTIVES Brief episodes of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion employed during reperfusion after a prolonged ischemic insult may attenuate the total ischemia-reperfusion injury. This phenomenon has been termed ischemic postconditioning. In the present study, we studied the possible effect of postconditioning on persistent reperfusion-induced ventricular(More)
BACKGROUND All-trans retinoic acid (atRA), an active derivative of vitamin A, regulates cell differentiation, proliferation and cardiac morphogenesis via transcriptional activation of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) acting on retinoic acid response elements (RARE). We hypothesized that the retinoic acid (RA) signalling pathway is activated in myocardial(More)
CCN2/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a CCN family matricellular protein repressed in healthy hearts after birth, is induced in heart failure of various etiologies. Multiple cellular and biological functions have been assigned to CCN2/CTGF depending on cellular context. However, the functions and mechanisms of action of CCN2/CTGF in the heart as well(More)
To investigate if spontaneous ischemic events in mice with severe multi-organ atherosclerosis could adapt to ischemia, apolipoprotein E/LDL receptor knockout mice were fed an atherogenic diet for 7 to 9 months. Signs of spontaneous ischemia occurred. One to two days later, hearts were excised, Langendorff-perfused with induced global ischemia, and compared(More)
OBJECTIVE The present study investigates dynamic changes of myocardial metabolism in response to ischemia, cardioplegia, and extracorporeal circulation (ECC) in order to differentiate between the contributing effects of each of these interventions. Furthermore, warm blood cardioplegia versus empty beating of the heart were compared as methods to resuscitate(More)
A wide variety of cardiac disease states can induce remodelling and lead to the functional consequence of heart failure. These complex disease states involve a plethora of parallel signal transduction events, which may be associated with tissue injury or tissue repair. Innate immunity is activated in hearts injured in different ways, evident as cytokine(More)
BACKGROUND All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) plays an essential role in the regulation of gene expression, cell growth and differentiation and is also important for normal cardiovascular development but may in turn be involved in cardiovascular diseases, i.e. atherosclerosis and restenosis. The cellular atRA levels are under strict control involving several(More)
The roles of immune cells and their soluble products during myocardial infarction (MI) are not completely understood. Here, we observed that the percentages of IL-17, but not IL-22, producing cells are reduced in mice splenocytes after developing MI. To correlate this finding with the functional activity of IL-17, we sought to determine its effect on(More)
OBJECTIVE Corticosteroids and hyperoxia protect the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury and may attenuate vascular reactivity. We hypothesized that (1) combining these two pretreatments induces an additive cardioprotection, (2) protection depends on activation of survival kinases and/or heat shock proteins, and (3) these interventions would change(More)