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NF-kappaB essential modulator (NEMO), the regulatory subunit of the IkappaB kinase (IKK) that activates NF-kappaB, is essential for NF-kappaB activation. NEMO was recently found to contain a region that preferentially binds Lys (K)63-linked but not K48-linked polyubiquitin (polyUb) chains, and the ability of NEMO to bind to K63-linked polyUb RIP(More)
Most basophilic serine/threonine kinases preferentially phosphorylate substrates with Arg at P-3 but vary greatly in additional strong preference for Arg at P-2 or P-5. The structural basis for P-2 or P-5 preference is known for two AGC kinases (family of protein kinases A, G, and C) in which it is mediated by a single pair of acidic residues (PEN+1 and(More)
Specificity of phosphorylation is critical to signal transduction. Recent emphasis on colocalization of substrate and kinase has eclipsed emphasis on peptide specificity, i.e., kinase preference for particular amino acids surrounding the phosphorylation site. We describe an approach to determining peptide specificity by using positional scanning of(More)
Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) recognition leads to TANK-binding kinase (TBK1) polyubiquitination and activation by transautophosphorylation, resulting in IFN-β production. Here, we describe a mouse model of optineurin insufficiency (OptnΔ(157) ) in which the TBK1-interacting N-terminus of optineurin was deleted. PAMP-stimulated cells from(More)
Specificity of phosphorylation by protein kinases is essential to the integrity of biological signal transduction. Specificity is determined by two critical elements: (1) peptide specificity of the kinase, i. e., preferential phosphorylation of S/T/Y residues surrounded by particular patterns of amino acids; and (2) recruitment, i. e., increasing the(More)
Phosphonamidate 3a of methoxymethylphosphonic acid (MMPA) with propofol (1) and l-alanine ethyl ester was found to be an efficient scaffold for the oral delivery of compound 1. The synthesis and evaluation of MMPA based phosphonamidates of compound 1, HSK3486 (2), and other phenolic drugs revealed the general application of MMPA as the effective delivery(More)
NF-kB essential modulator (NEMO), the regulatory subunit of the IkB kinase (IKK) that activates NF-kB, is essential for NF-kB activation [1]. NEMO was recently found to contain a region that preferentially binds Lys (K)63-linked but not K48-linked polyubiquitin (polyUb) chains, and the ability of NEMO to bind to K63-linked polyUb RIP (receptor-interacting(More)
To precisely regulate critical signaling pathways, two kinases that phosphorylate distinct sites on the same protein substrate must have mutually exclusive specificity. Evolution could assure this by designing families of kinase such as basophilic kinases and proline-directed kinase with distinct peptide specificity; their reciprocal peptide specificity(More)
Optineurin is a widely expressed polyubiquitin-binding protein that has been implicated in regulating cell signaling via its NF-κB essential modulator-homologous C-terminal ubiquitin (Ub)-binding region. Its functions are controversial, with in vitro studies finding that optineurin suppressed TNF-mediated NF-κB activation and virus-induced activation of IFN(More)
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