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Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) hold great promise in cardiac fibrosis therapy, due to their potential ability of inhibiting cardiac myofibroblast differentiation (a hallmark of cardiac fibrosis). However, the mechanism involved in their effects remains elusive. To explore this, it is necessary to develop an in vitro cardiac fibrosis model that(More)
The tissues of hollow organs can routinely stretch up to 2.5 times their length. Although significant pathology can arise if relatively large stretches are sustained, the responses of cells are not known at these levels of sustained strain. A key challenge is presenting cells with a realistic and well-defined three-dimensional (3D) culture environment that(More)
Decay, spin, and their relationship to the interaction of matter are presented here. The reversible decay reaction is the source of interactions. Charge and Coulomb force are ubiquitous among spin systems. All the interactions are unified to inertia force and coriolis force in spin systems which are described by Newton's Second Law. The question about the(More)
Autapse is an unusual type of synapse generated by a neuron on itself. The ability to monitor axonal growth of single neurons and autapse formation in three-dimensions (3D) may provide fundamental information relating to many cellular processes, such as axonal development, synaptic plasticity and neural signal transmission. However, monitoring such growth(More)
The ways that living cells regulate their behavior in response to their local mechanical environment underlie growth, development, and healing and are important to critical pathologies such as metastasis and fibrosis. Although extensive experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that this regulation is governed by the dependence of filopodial dynamics(More)
The fine structure constant has been proved to be no change even if the speed of light varies in gravitation field or in the history of cosmos. Lorentz transformation has also been proved to be a transformation of physical units between two different frames. This transformation implies a variable speed of light in gravitational field. Base on this variable(More)
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