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Endochondral ossification is initiated by the differentiation of mesenchymal precursor cells to chondrocytes (chondrogenesis). This process is characterized by a strong interdependence of cell shape, cytoskeletal organization, and the onset of chondrogenic gene expression, but the molecular mechanisms mediating these interactions are not known. Here we(More)
Chondrocyte differentiation is a multi-step process characterized by successive changes in cell morphology and gene expression. In addition to tight regulation by numerous soluble factors, these processes are controlled by adhesive events. During the early phase of the chondrocyte life cycle, cell-cell adhesion through molecules such as N-cadherin and(More)
Small GTPases of the Rho family have been implicated in the regulation of many intracellular processes. However, their tissue-specific roles in mammalian growth and development in vivo remain largely unknown. Here we describe the effects of cartilage-specific inactivation of the Rac1 gene in mice. Mice carrying this mutation show increased lethality,(More)
UNLABELLED The intracellular signaling pathways controlling chondrocyte physiology are largely unknown. Here we show that the small GTPases, Rac1 and Cdc42, accelerate the rate of chondrocyte differentiation and apoptosis, thereby antagonizing the activity of RhoA. These results identify Rac1 and Cdc42 pathways as novel regulators of cartilage development.(More)
The molecular mechanisms controlling differentiation of mesenchymal precursor cells into chondrocytes (chondrogenesis) are not completely understood. We have recently shown that the small GTPase RhoA inhibits this process. Here we demonstrate that a different Rho GTPase family member, Rac1, promotes chondrogenesis. Pharmacological inhibition of Rac1(More)
This report demonstrates that Clara cell 10-kDa protein (CC10) mRNA levels are regulated by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). An analysis of total lung RNA from mice given IFN-gamma intratracheally showed increased levels of CC10 mRNA compared to control animals but no significant increases in surfactant proteins B and C. These results were confirmed in a Clara(More)
The function of guanine nucleotide binding (G) proteins is Mg(2+) dependent with guanine nucleotide exchange requiring higher metal ion concentration than guanosine 5'-triphosphate hydrolysis. It is unclear whether two Mg(2+) binding sites are present or if one Mg(2+) binding site exhibits different affinities for the inactive GDP-bound or the active(More)
Coordinated proliferation and differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes is required for normal growth and development of the endochondral skeleton, but little is known about the intracellular signal transduction pathways regulating these processes. We have investigated the roles of the GTPase RhoA and its effector kinases ROCK1/2 in hypertrophic(More)
To investigate the developmental regulation of the mouse Clara cell 10-KD protein (mCC10), we raised an antibody against the recombinant mCC10 protein. The coding region for the mature mCC10 protein was placed in frame with the glutathione-S-transferase gene in the pGEX2-T bacterial expression vector. The GST-mCC10 fusion protein was expressed in E. coli(More)
Elucidating the signalling pathways that regulate chondrocyte differentiation, such as the actin cytoskeleton and Rho GTPases, during development is essential for understanding of pathological conditions of cartilage, such as chondrodysplasias and osteoarthritis. Manipulation of actin dynamics in tibia organ cultures isolated from E15.5 mice results in(More)