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In this study, the immune-modulatory and vaccine effects of using an interleukin (IL)-18 expression plasmid as a genetic adjuvant to enhance DNA vaccine-induced immune responses were investigated in a mouse herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) challenge model. BALB/c mice were immunized by three intramuscular inoculations of HSV-1 glycoprotein D (gD) DNA vaccine(More)
CD40, a member of the nerve growth factor/tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, and its ligand, CD154, play essential roles in cell immune responses. The results of many studies have indicated that CD40-CD154 interaction can upregulate costimulatory molecules, activate antigen-presenting cells (APCs), influence T-cell priming and T-cell-mediated(More)
The aim of this study was to determine whether antibodies induced by human papillomavirus (HPV) type 31 L1/L2 virus-like particles (VLPs) could cross-react with VLPs of the closely related HPV-16 and distantly related HPV-11, and to investigate the potential role of the L2 protein in L1/L2 VLPs in inducing cross-neutralizing antibodies. Antisera were(More)
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