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The influence of various factors on the accuracy of protein-ligand docking is examined. The factors investigated include the role of a grid representation of protein-ligand interactions, the initial ligand conformation and orientation, the sampling rate of the energy hyper-surface, and the final minimization. A representative docking method is used to study(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptors are members of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. TRAIL selectively kills cancer cells but not normal cells. We report here the cloning of the mouse homologue of the TRAIL receptor KILLER/DR5 (MK). The cDNA of MK is 1146 bp in length and encodes a protein of 381 amino(More)
p53 induction and cell cycle arrest occur following DNA damage, possibly to allow repair prior to replication. p21WAF1/CIP1, a cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-interacting protein, is induced by p53 and mediates the cell cycle arrest. To investigate a role for p21 in DNA repair in vivo, we studied the(More)
During seedling establishment, blue and red light suppress hypocotyl growth through the cryptochrome 1 (cry1) and phytochrome B (phyB) photosensory pathways, respectively. How these photosensory pathways integrate with growth control mechanisms to achieve the appropriate degree of stem elongation was investigated by combining cry1 and phyB photoreceptor(More)
Much of the predisposition to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer has been attributed to inherited defects in the BRCA1 tumour-suppressor gene. The nuclear protein BRCA1 has the properties of a transcription factor, and can interact with the recombination and repair protein RAD51. Young women with germline alterations in BRCA1 develop breast cancer at(More)
Two Arabidopsis thaliana ABC transporter genes linked to auxin transport by various previous results were studied in a reverse-genetic fashion. Mutations in Multidrug Resistance-Like1 (MDR1) reduced acropetal auxin transport in roots by 80% without affecting basipetal transport. Conversely, mutations in MDR4 blocked 50% of basipetal transport without(More)
Cucurbitacins are a class of triterpenoids widely distributed in plant kingdom with potent anti-cancer activities both in vitro and in vivo by inducing cycle arrest, autophagy, and apoptosis. Cucurbitacin B (Cuc B), could induce S or G2/M cell cycle arrest in cancer cells while the detailed mechanisms remain to be clear. This study was designed to precisely(More)
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL or Apo2L) and its receptors are members of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. TRAIL triggers apoptosis by binding to its two proapoptotic receptors DR4 and DR5, a process which is negatively regulated by binding of TRAIL to its two decoy receptors TRID and TRUNDD. Here, we show(More)
We report a series of experiments and a theoretical model designed to systematically define and evaluate the relative importance of nanoparticle, oligonucleotide, and environmental variables that contribute to the observed sharp melting transitions associated with DNA-linked nanoparticle structures. These variables include the size of the nanoparticles, the(More)