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[1] In this paper we investigate the feasibility of determining cloud liquid water path from passive microwave measurements over sea ice. Simulations using a 32-stream plane-parallel microwave radiative transfer model indicate a consistent increase in brightness temperature attributable to cloud liquid water for conditions observed in the Arctic during the(More)
Locality preserving manifold learning algorithms are seeking intrinsic manifold based on overlapping local geometry structure. Locality Preserving Projections (LPP) and Neighborhood Preserving Embedding (NPE) are two representative linear locality preserving manifold learning algorithms, which not only defined on training samples, but also can generalize to(More)
An analysis of satellite microwave brightness temperatures at 85 GHz (37 GHz) shows that these temperatures sometimes vary by more than 30 K (15 K) within 1 or 2 days at a single location over Arctic sea ice. This variation can be seen in horizontal brightness temperature distributions with spatial scales of hundreds of kilometers, as well as in brightness(More)
Many studies have reported on the trends of precipitation in Mid-Eastern China (EC). However, the trends of convective and stratiform precipitation are still unknown. Here, we examine the trends of summer convective and stratiform precipitation in EC from 2002 to 2012 on the basis of the TRMM observations. Results revealed that the rain frequency (RF) for(More)
Direct methods for stereoselective functionalization of sp3-hybridized carbon-hydrogen [C(sp3)-H] bonds in complex organic molecules could facilitate much more efficient preparation of therapeutics and agrochemicals. Here, we report a copper-catalyzed radical relay pathway for enantioselective conversion of benzylic C-H bonds into benzylic nitriles.(More)
To study the impact of cloud liquid water on passive microwave snowfall remote sensing, we analyzed 4 years of liquid water path data retrieved from microwave radiometer on Aqua satellite that are collocated with CloudSat snowfall observations. Results showed that cloud liquid water commonly occurs in snowing clouds (2-m air temperature lower than 2C);(More)
Wacker-type oxidative cyclization reactions have been the subject of extensive research for several decades, but few systematic mechanistic studies of these reactions have been reported. The present study features experimental and DFT computational studies of Pd(OAc)(2)/pyridine-catalyzed intramolecular aerobic oxidative amination of alkenes. The data(More)
A number of different PdII catalyst systems have been reported recently for the Wacker-type aerobic oxidative cyclization of alkenes bearing tethered nitrogen nucleophiles. This study examines the stereochemistry of the aminopalladation step with five different catalyst systems: Pd(OAc)2/DMSO (A), PdX2/pyridine [X = OAc (B), O2CCF3 (C)],(More)