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Gating of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) involves a coordinated action of ATP on two nucleotide binding domains (NBD1 and NBD2). Previous studies using nonhydrolyzable ATP analogues and NBD mutant CFTR have suggested that nucleotide hydrolysis at NBD1 is required for opening of the channel, while hydrolysis of nucleotides at(More)
IR64, the most widely grown indicarice in South and Southeast Asia, possesses many positive agronomic characteristics (e.g., wide adaptability, high yield potential, tolerance to multiple diseases and pests, and good eating quality,) that make it an ideal genotype for identifying mutational changes in traits of agronomic importance. We have produced a large(More)
Plants employ multifaceted mechanisms to fight with numerous pathogens in nature. Resistance (R) genes are the most effective weapons against pathogen invasion since they can specifically recognize the corresponding pathogen effectors or associated protein(s) to activate plant immune responses at the site of infection. Up to date, over 70 R genes have been(More)
The Magnaporthe oryzae avirulence gene AvrPiz-t activates immunity in a gene-for-gene fashion to rice mediated by the blast resistance gene Piz-t. To dissect the molecular mechanism underlying their recognition, we initiated the cloning of AvrPiz-t using a map-based cloning strategy. The AvrPiz-t gene was delimited to an approximately 21-kb genomic(More)
Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) has become a popular tool to investigate biomolecular adsorption phenomena at surfaces. In contrast to optical mass-sensitive techniques, which commonly detect the adsorbed nonhydrated mass, the mechanically coupled mass measured by QCM-D includes a significant amount of water. A mechanistic(More)
Rhodococcus opacus strain PD630 (R. opacus PD630), is an oleaginous bacterium, and also is one of few prokaryotic organisms that contain lipid droplets (LDs). LD is an important organelle for lipid storage but also intercellular communication regarding energy metabolism, and yet is a poorly understood cellular organelle. To understand the dynamics of LD(More)
During angiosperm microsporogenesis, callose serves as a temporary wall to separate microsporocytes and newly formed microspores in the tetrad. Abnormal callose deposition and dissolution can lead to degeneration of developing microspores. However, genes and their regulation in callose metabolism during microsporogenesis still remain largely unclear. Here,(More)
Belowground dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems are responding to global increases in anthropogenic N deposition with important consequences for productivity and ecosystem health. We compared root characteristics across five root orders in Pinus tabuliformis plantations treated for 3 years to a gradient of N addition (0–15 g m−2 year−1). In reference plots,(More)
Type I IFNs play central roles in innate immunity; however, overproduction of IFN can lead to immunopathology. In this study, we demonstrate that adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1), an RNA-editing enzyme induced by IFN, is essential for cells to avoid inappropriate sensing of cytosolic RNA in an inducible knockout cell model-the primary mouse(More)
An epizootic in seawater-cage reared large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea, in China was caused by a Nocardia sp. from August to October 2003. The cumulative mortality rate was 15% and the diseased fish were 16 months old with individual length varying from 25 to 30 cm. Multiple, white nodules, 0.1-0.2 cm in diameter, were scattered on the heart, spleen(More)