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The past decade has resulted in a rapid increase in knowledge of mechanisms underlying brain injury induced by intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Animal studies have suggested roles for clot-derived factors and the initial physical trauma and mass effect as a result of haemorrhage. The coagulation cascade (especially thrombin), haemoglobin breakdown products,(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE In humans, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) causes marked perihematomal edema formation and neurological deficits. A rat ICH model, involving infusion of autologous blood into the caudate, has been used extensively to study mechanisms of edema formation, but an examination of behavioral outcome would improve its preclinical utility and(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Evidence indicates that brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is due in part to the release of iron from hemoglobin. Therefore, we examined whether such iron is cleared from the brain and the effects of ICH on proteins that may alter iron release or handling: brain heme oxygenase-1, transferrin, transferrin receptor, and(More)
Intracerebral haemorrhage accounts for about 10-15% of all strokes and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. No successful phase 3 clinical trials for this disorder have been completed. In the past 6 years, the number of preclinical and clinical studies focused on intracerebral haemorrhage has risen. Important advances have been made in animal(More)
OBJECT The mechanisms of brain edema formation following spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are not well understood. In previous studies, no significant edema formation has been found 24 hours after infusion of packed red blood cells (RBCs) into the brain of a rat or pig; however, there is evidence that hemoglobin can be neurotoxic. In this study,(More)
OBJECT The mechanisms involved in brain edema formation following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have not been fully elucidated. The authors have found that red blood cell lysis plays an important role in edema development after ICH. In the present study, they sought to determine whether degradation products of hemoglobin cause brain edema. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Neurogenesis in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has not been investigated. Thrombin formation causes acute brain injury after ICH, but thrombin also can stimulate cell proliferation. The present study examined whether neurogenesis takes place in ICH and the role of thrombin in ICH-related neurogenesis. METHODS This study was divided(More)
Recent results have suggested a role for autophagy in acute brain injury but an involvement in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has not been investigated. Although, autophagy is a regulated process essential for cellular homeostasis, it may represent an additional type of cell death mechanism. This study employed a modified endovascular perforation rat model(More)
In the last two decades it has become apparent that thrombin has many extravascular effects that are mediated by a family of protease-activated receptors (PARs). PAR-1, -3 and -4 are activated via cleavage by thrombin. The importance of extravascular thrombin in modulating ischemic, hemorrhagic and traumatic injury in brain has recently become clear. Thus,(More)
OBJECT Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) causes brain atrophy and neurological deficits. The mechanisms of brain atrophy after ICH are poorly understood, although recent evidence suggests that some ICH-induced brain injury results from the products of hemoglobin degradation, including iron. In this study the authors examine the role of iron in brain atrophy(More)