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Studies show that the India plate continues to move northward at 50mm/year after the India-Eurasia collision. As its consequence, the Tibetan Plateau has been rising rapidly with crustal shortening and lateral extrusion, resulting in intense motion and deformation of surrounding areas.. GPS measurements indicate that the directions of displacements in the(More)
New drugs targeting the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway have generated striking clinical response in melanoma therapy. From the discovery of BRAF mutation in melanoma in 2002, to the approval of first BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib for melanoma treatment by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2011, therapies targeting the MAPK pathway have(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Incidence of Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is prevalent in Asian populations, especially in the ones from the "Asian esophageal cancer belt" along the Silk Road and the ones from East Asia (including Japan). Silk Road and Eastern Asia population genetics are relevant to the ancient population migration from central(More)
BACKGROUND Cutaneous melanoma is a life-threatening skin cancer because of its poorly understood invasive nature and high metastatic potential. This study examines the importance of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (EIF5A2) in melanoma pathogenesis. METHODS We examined EIF5A2 expression in 459 melanocytic lesions using tissue microarray. In(More)
BACKGROUND We previously showed that inhibitor of growth family member 4 (ING4) inhibits melanoma angiogenesis, and JWA suppresses the metastasis of melanoma cells. As angiogenesis is essential for tumour metastasis, further investigation of the function of ING4 and JWA in melanoma angiogenesis is needed, and their prognostic value are of great interest. (More)
Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective cation channel activated by capsaicin, low pH, and noxious heat and plays a key role in nociception. Understanding mechanisms for functional modulation of TRPV1 has important implications. One characteristic of TRPV1 is that channel activity induced by either capsaicin or other(More)
The melanoma staging system proposed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) (which classifies melanoma patients into four clinical stages) is currently the most widely used tool for melanoma prognostication, and clinical management decision making by clinicians. However, multiple studies have shown that melanomas within specific AJCC Stages can(More)
To date only a handful of drugs are available for the treatment of melanoma. Among them vemurafenib, a BrafV600E specific inhibitor, showed promising results in terms of response rate and increase in median survival time. However, its effectiveness is limited by development of resistance and the search for additional drugs for melanoma treatment is ongoing.(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Two recent genome-wide association studies have identified a shared susceptibility variation PLCE1 rs2274223 for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and gastric cardia adenocarcinomas (GCA). Subsequent case-control studies have reported this association in other populations. However, the findings were controversial and the(More)