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New drugs targeting the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway have generated striking clinical response in melanoma therapy. From the discovery of BRAF mutation in melanoma in 2002, to the approval of first BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib for melanoma treatment by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2011, therapies targeting the MAPK pathway have(More)
Studies show that the India plate continues to move northward at 50mm/year after the India-Eurasia collision. As its consequence, the Tibetan Plateau has been rising rapidly with crustal shortening and lateral extrusion, resulting in intense motion and deformation of surrounding areas.. GPS measurements indicate that the directions of displacements in the(More)
BACKGROUND Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) causes outbreaks of life-threatening diseases throughout the world. The genesis of these severe diseases is unknown. METHODS During an outbreak of HEV71 infection, we investigated risk factors for critical illness. We developed a modified pediatric index of mortality (mPIM) incorporating heart rate, temperature,(More)
BACKGROUND Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) include malignant tumors of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus, account for approximately 4% of all new cancers in world. Alcohol drinking is an established risk factor for UADT cancers, and the rate of alcohol metabolism could significantly been influenced by genetic polymorphisms of(More)
The melanoma staging system proposed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) (which classifies melanoma patients into four clinical stages) is currently the most widely used tool for melanoma prognostication, and clinical management decision making by clinicians. However, multiple studies have shown that melanomas within specific AJCC Stages can(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Incidence of Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is prevalent in Asian populations, especially in the ones from the "Asian esophageal cancer belt" along the Silk Road and the ones from East Asia (including Japan). Silk Road and Eastern Asia population genetics are relevant to the ancient population migration from central(More)
Melanoma is the deadliest cutaneous malignancy because of its high incidence of metastasis. Melanoma growth and metastasis relies on sustained angiogenesis; therefore, inhibiting angiogenesis is a promising approach to treat metastatic melanoma. JWA is a novel microtubule-associated protein and our previous work revealed that JWA inhibited melanoma cell(More)
BACKGROUND To explore the characteristics and clinical significance of diffusing capacity in the patients with lung cancer. METHODS The pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) was measured with the rebreathing method in 138 patients with primary lung cancer, and 86 were performed pulmonary resection. RESULTS There was no significant(More)
To date only a handful of drugs are available for the treatment of melanoma. Among them vemurafenib, a BrafV600E specific inhibitor, showed promising results in terms of response rate and increase in median survival time. However, its effectiveness is limited by development of resistance and the search for additional drugs for melanoma treatment is ongoing.(More)