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Studies show that the India plate continues to move northward at 50mm/year after the India-Eurasia collision. As its consequence, the Tibetan Plateau has been rising rapidly with crustal shortening and lateral extrusion, resulting in intense motion and deformation of surrounding areas.. GPS measurements indicate that the directions of displacements in the(More)
New drugs targeting the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway have generated striking clinical response in melanoma therapy. From the discovery of BRAF mutation in melanoma in 2002, to the approval of first BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib for melanoma treatment by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2011, therapies targeting the MAPK pathway have(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Incidence of Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is prevalent in Asian populations, especially in the ones from the "Asian esophageal cancer belt" along the Silk Road and the ones from East Asia (including Japan). Silk Road and Eastern Asia population genetics are relevant to the ancient population migration from central(More)
The melanoma staging system proposed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) (which classifies melanoma patients into four clinical stages) is currently the most widely used tool for melanoma prognostication, and clinical management decision making by clinicians. However, multiple studies have shown that melanomas within specific AJCC Stages can(More)
To date only a handful of drugs are available for the treatment of melanoma. Among them vemurafenib, a BrafV600E specific inhibitor, showed promising results in terms of response rate and increase in median survival time. However, its effectiveness is limited by development of resistance and the search for additional drugs for melanoma treatment is ongoing.(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Two recent genome-wide association studies have identified a shared susceptibility variation PLCE1 rs2274223 for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and gastric cardia adenocarcinomas (GCA). Subsequent case-control studies have reported this association in other populations. However, the findings were controversial and the(More)
Primary melanoma, a highly aggressive malignancy, exhibits heterogeneity in biologic behaviors, clinical characteristics, metastasis potential and mortality. The present study sought to identify the molecular signatures that define a subgroup of primary melanomas with high risks of metastasis and mortality. First, we identified the markers that best(More)
BACKGROUND C-terminal tensin-like protein (Cten) is a focal adhesion protein originally identified as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer. It has since been found to be overexpressed and function as an oncogene in numerous other cancers, but the expression status of Cten in melanoma is still unknown. METHODS Using tissue microarrays containing 562(More)
Data of HPV genotype including 16 high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) and 4 low-risk HPV from 38,397 women with normal cytology, 1341 women with cervical cytology abnormalities, and 223 women with ISCC were retrospectively evaluated by a hospital-based study. The prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.51%, 41.83%, and 96.86% in women with normal cytology, cervical(More)