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Phytophthora infestans is the most destructive pathogen of potato and a model organism for the oomycetes, a distinct lineage of fungus-like eukaryotes that are related to organisms such as brown algae and diatoms. As the agent of the Irish potato famine in the mid-nineteenth century, P. infestans has had a tremendous effect on human history, resulting in(More)
High-throughput sequencing has been dramatically accelerating the discovery of microsatellite markers (also known as Simple Sequence Repeats). Both 454 and Illumina reads have been used directly in microsatellite discovery and primer design (the "Seq-to-SSR" approach). However, constraints of this approach include: 1) many microsatellite-containing reads do(More)
Members of the virus family Narnaviridae contain the simplest genomes of any RNA virus, ranging from 2.3 to 3.6 kb and encoding only a single polypeptide that has an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domain. The family is subdivided into two genera based on subcellular location: members of the genus Narnavirus have been found in the yeast Saccharomyces(More)
A virus designated Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 3 (PiRV-3) was characterized from an isolate of P. infestans that was co-infected with a second previously described virus, PiRV-4, a member of the virus family Narnaviridae (Cai et al., 2012). The genome of PiRV-3 is 8112 nt and one strand, designated the positive strand, has two deduced overlapping open(More)
In this paper, we review historical and contemporary species concepts and species recognition criteria for plant pathogenic fungi. Previous incongruent and unstable classification based on subjective and changing criteria have led to some confusion, especially amongst plant pathologists. The goal of systematics is to provide an informative and robust(More)
The order Magnaporthales (Ascomycota, Fungi) includes devastating pathogens of cereals, such as the rice blast fungus Pyricularia (Magnaporthe) oryzae, which is a model in host-pathogen interaction studies. Magnaporthales also includes saprotrophic species associated with grass roots and submerged wood. Despite its scientific and economic importance, the(More)
In order to better understand resistance to Phytophthora infestans in tomato, we compared the global gene expression of the susceptible tomato, M82, with its more resistant near-isogenic line, 6-2 (IL6-2), under field conditions using a microarray with more than 12 800 tomato expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Because variance in the field was a major concern,(More)
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays an important role in the adaptation of lineages to changing environments. The extent of this process in eukaryotes, however, remains controversial. The most well-known and dramatic form of HGT represents intracellular gene transfer from endosymbionts to the host nuclear genome. Such episodes of transfer typically involve(More)
Double-stranded RNA representing four distinct electrophoretic patterns was found in a screen of Phytophthora infestans isolates. Two dsRNAs that always appeared together were sequenced. RNA 1, which was 3160 nt plus a poly (A) tail, contained a single deduced ORF with the potential to encode a polyprotein of 977 aa with motifs characteristic of supergroup(More)
A virus that has properties consistent with inclusion in the virus family Narnaviridae was described in Phytophthora infestans, the oomycete that caused the Irish potato famine. The genome of phytophthora infestans RNA virus 4 (PiRV-4) is 2,984 nt with short complementary terminal sequences and a single open reading frame predicted to encode an(More)