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Plant clonality, the ability of a plant species to reproduce itself vegetatively through ramets (shoot-root units), occurs in many plant species and is considered to be more frequent in cold or wet environments. However, a deeper understanding on the clonality-climate relationships along large geographic gradients is still scarce. In this study we revealed(More)
• Variation in plant functional traits is the product of evolutionary and environmental drivers operating at different scales. Little is known about whether, or how, this variation is coordinated between aboveground and belowground organs across and within spatial scales. • We address these questions using a hierarchically designed dataset of pairwise leaf(More)
To achieve an appropriate mixture of ammonium and nitrite for anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX), 50% partial nitritation was optimized in a fixed bed biofilm reactor treating synthetic wastewater. Results suggested that 50% partial nitritation could be achieved by stepwise increases of influent NH4+-N at pH of 7.8±0.2, temperature of 30±1°C and(More)
Seed mass is an adaptive trait affecting species distribution, population dynamics and community structure. In widely distributed species, variation in seed mass may reflect both genetic adaptation to local environments and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Acknowledging the difficulty in separating these two aspects, we examined the causal relationships(More)
BACKGROUND The Mongolian steppe is one of the most important grasslands in the world but suffers from aridization and damage from anthropogenic activities. Understanding structure and function of this community is important for the ecological conservation, but has seldom been investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS In this study, a total of 324(More)
The formation of fertility islands by shrubs increases soil resources heterogeneity in thicketization-grasslands. Clonal plants, especially rhizomatous or stoloniferous clonal plants, can form large clonal networks and use heterogeneously distributed resources effectively. In addition, shrubs, especially spiny shrubs, may also provide herbaceous plants with(More)
Current and future changes in rainfall patterns – amount and frequency – may particularly impact annual plants in semi-arid ecosystems. The aim of this study was to investigate how changes in rainfall patterns affect the growth and fecundity of sand dune annuals. The effects of gradients in five rainfall amounts and five frequencies, based on historical and(More)
The clonal strategy should be relatively important in stressful environments (i.e. of low resource availability or harsh climate), e.g. in cold habitats. However, our understanding of the distribution pattern of clonality along environmental gradients is still far from universal. The weakness and inconsistency of overall clonality-climate relationships(More)
Higher than expected litter decomposition rates have been observed in dry, sunny environments due to photochemical or physical degradation. However, our understanding of carbon and nutrient fluxes of standing and buried litters compared to surface litter in such areas is still scarce. We sampled leaf litters from 51 species in a semiarid dune ecosystem and(More)
Using samples from eastern China (c. 25 - 41° N and 99 - 123° E) and from a common garden experiment, we investigate how Mg concentration varies with climate across multiple trophic levels. In soils, plant tissue (Oriental oak leaves and acorns), and a specialist acorn predator (the weevil Curculio davidi), Mg concentration increased significantly with(More)