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OBJECTIVE To reveal the expression and possible roles of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) in rat brain, after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS Brain water content (BWC), tetrazolium chloride staining, Evans blue staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used. RESULTS The BWC(More)
BACKGROUND Demyelination is one of the most important pathological factors of spinal cord injury. Oligodendrocyte apoptosis is involved in triggering demyelination. However, fewer reports on pathological changes and mechanism of demyelination have been presented from compressed spinal cord injury (CSCI). The relative effect of oligodendrocyte apoptosis on(More)
The aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel contributes to brain water homeostasis in perivascular and subpial membrane domains of astrocytes where it is concentrated. These membranes form the interface between the neuropil and the extracellular liquid spaces. The brain-selective deletion of the dystroglycan (DG) gene causes a disorganization of AQP4 on the(More)
Brain edema formation following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) appears to be related with aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which is critically involved in brain volume homeostasis and water balance. Despite its importance, the regulation of AQP4 expression involved in transmembrane water movements still remains rudimentary. Many studies suggest that the internalization(More)
Visualization of very large digital elevation models plays an important role in many applications ranging from computer games to professional Geographic Information System (GIS). However, the size of terrain datasets is much larger than the capacity of main memory, which brings up serious challenges for the interactive visualization of massive terrain. In(More)
Grass animation plays an important role in various applications, such as virtual reality, computer games and special effects of movies. In recent years, varieties of approaches have been proposed to simulate the interaction between grass and the wind field. However, simulation of grass-object interaction is seldom involved due to the complexity of physical(More)
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