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We characterized two novel highly pathogenic H5N6 influenza viruses isolated from Chinese poultry in 2013. Genomic analysis showed that both isolates were reassortants, and derived their genes from H5 and H6 subtype viruses found in poultry in China. The virulence of the two isolates was examined in chickens and mice, and both isolates were found to be(More)
We characterized 7 highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from poultry in China during 2009-2012 and found that they belong to clade 2.3.4 but do not fit within the 3 defined subclades. Antigenic drift in subtype H5N1 variants may reduce the efficacy of vaccines designed to control these viruses in poultry.
In China, domestic ducks and wild birds often share the same water, in which influenza viruses replicate preferentially. Isolation of 2 novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N5) viruses from apparently healthy domestic ducks highlights the role of these ducks as reassortment vessels. Such new subtypes of influenza viruses may pose a(More)
One H5N8 and three H5N5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses which derived their HA genes from the Asian H5N1 lineage were isolated from poultry during 2009-2010 in mainland China. Pathogenicity studies showed that these viruses were all highly virulent to chickens, while they varied from moderate to high virulence in mice and from mild to(More)
Although extensive data demonstrates that the majority of H6 duck isolates belonged to a single H6N2 virus lineage with a single gene constellation in southern China from 2000 to 2005, the prevalence of H6N2 virus in poultry in Eastern China is largely unknown. Epidemiology revealed that H6N2 viruses were the most frequently detected influenza subtypes in(More)
BACKGROUND The H5N1 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses has spread to over 63 countries in Asia, Europe, and Africa and has become endemic in poultry. Since 2004, vaccination against H5N1 influenza has become common in domestic poultry operations in China. Most influenza vaccines have been produced in embryonated chicken eggs. High yield is(More)
In spring 2009, one strain of H5N1 clade 2.3.2 virus was isolated from wild swans in Shanghai, indicating the importance of the wild swan in the ecology of this highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in Eastern China. Pathogenicity experiments conducted in this study indicated that the virus was highly pathogenic for chickens but lowly pathogenic(More)
To investigate whether the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus was still being transmitted in swine, a total of 1029 nasal swab samples from healthy swine were collected from January to May 2010 in Jiangsu province of China. Eight H1N1 influenza viruses were isolated and identified, and their full length genomes were sequenced. We found that all eight of(More)
In this study, the complete genomic sequence of a novel reassortant H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) from domestic ducks in eastern China was reported. Phylogenetic analysis showed that seven of the eight genes were all highly homologous to the chicken-origin H9N2 viruses, whereas the PB2 gene was homologous to the human-origin H1N1 virus, which suggested(More)
Green fluorescent protein (GFP) used as a powerful marker of gene expression in vivo has so far been applied widely in studying the localizations and functions of protein in living cells. In this study, GFP-labeled assay was used to investigate the subcellular localization of matrix (M) protein of different virulence and genotype Newcastle disease virus(More)