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We characterized 7 highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from poultry in China during 2009-2012 and found that they belong to clade 2.3.4 but do not fit within the 3 defined subclades. Antigenic drift in subtype H5N1 variants may reduce the efficacy of vaccines designed to control these viruses in poultry.
We characterized two novel highly pathogenic H5N6 influenza viruses isolated from Chinese poultry in 2013. Genomic analysis showed that both isolates were reassortants, and derived their genes from H5 and H6 subtype viruses found in poultry in China. The virulence of the two isolates was examined in chickens and mice, and both isolates were found to be(More)
In China, domestic ducks and wild birds often share the same water, in which influenza viruses replicate preferentially. Isolation of 2 novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N5) viruses from apparently healthy domestic ducks highlights the role of these ducks as reassortment vessels. Such new subtypes of influenza viruses may pose a(More)
BACKGROUND Although extensive data demonstrates that the majority of H6 duck isolates belonged to a single H6N2 virus lineage with a single gene constellation in southern China from 2000 to 2005, the prevalence of H6N2 virus in poultry in Eastern China is largely unknown. RESULTS Epidemiology revealed that H6N2 viruses were the most frequently detected(More)
In this paper, we integrated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor and detection system to fabricate pesticides residues portable detection instrument for an on-site use. The AChE biosensor was based on the inhibition of enzyme activity that was monitored by the change of oxidation current of the thiocholine using ordinary three electrodes and an own(More)
Pigs are susceptible to infection with both human and avian influenza A viruses and are considered intermediate hosts that facilitate virus reassortment. Although H5N1 virus has spread to a wide range of avian and mammalian species, data about swine H5N1 isolates are scarce. To determine whether Asian H5N1 influenza viruses had been transmitted to pigs, a(More)
BACKGROUND Neurosurgical procedures that require a frontal approach could be an impediment for a successful Bispectral Index (BIS) frontal sensor placement. The aim of this study was to explore the utility of using the new BIS-Vista monitor (Aspect Medical Systems, Newton, MA) for occipital sensor placement in the patients undergoing brain neurosurgical(More)
In this study, the complete genomic sequence of a novel reassortant H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) from domestic ducks in eastern China was reported. Phylogenetic analysis showed that seven of the eight genes were all highly homologous to the chicken-origin H9N2 viruses, whereas the PB2 gene was homologous to the human-origin H1N1 virus, which suggested(More)
Isolates of the A(H1N1)pdm2009 virus were first identified in asymptomatic swine in Jiangsu province, China in January 2010, indicating that the virus has retro-infected swine after circulating through humans in mainland China. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the avian-origin European H1N1 swine influenza virus (SIV) and the(More)
In spring 2009, one strain of H5N1 clade 2.3.2 virus was isolated from wild swans in Shanghai, indicating the importance of the wild swan in the ecology of this highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in Eastern China. Pathogenicity experiments conducted in this study indicated that the virus was highly pathogenic for chickens but lowly pathogenic(More)