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Hebb's rule (1949) states that learning and memory are based on modifications of synaptic strength among neurons that are simultaneously active. This implies that enhanced synaptic coincidence detection would lead to better learning and memory. If the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor, a synaptic coincidence detector, acts as a graded switch for memory(More)
The localization of substance P in brain regions that coordinate stress responses and receive convergent monoaminergic innervation suggested that substance P antagonists might have psychotherapeutic properties. Like clinically used antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs, substance P antagonists suppressed isolation-induced vocalizations in guinea pigs. In a(More)
Rice sheath blight (ShB), caused by the soilborne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, annually causes severe losses in yield and quality in many rice production areas worldwide. Jasmine 85 is an indica cultivar that has proven to have a high level of resistance to this pathogen. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of controlled environment(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a tool for mapping brain function that utilizes neuronal activity-induced changes in blood oxygenation. An efficient three-dimensional fMRI method is presented for imaging brain activity on conventional, widely available, 1.5-T scanners, without additional hardware. This approach uses large magnetic(More)
Wnt signalling has an important role in cell fate determination, tissue patterning and tumorigenesis. Secreted antagonists of Wnt include Frizzled (Fz)-related proteins (FRPs), Cerberus, Wnt inhibitory factor (WIF) and Dickkopf (Dkk). FRPs, Cerberus and WIF have all been shown to act by binding and sequestering Wnt. We report a novel mechanism of(More)
A new type of self-assembling peptide (sapeptide) scaffolds that serve as substrates for neurite outgrowth and synapse formation is described. These peptide-based scaffolds are amenable to molecular design by using chemical or biotechnological syntheses. They can be tailored to a variety of applications. The sapeptide scaffolds are formed through the(More)
The machinery of eukaryotic protein synthesis is found in association with the actin cytoskeleton. A major component of this translational apparatus, which is involved in the shuttling of aa-tRNA, is the actin-binding protein elongation factor 1alpha (EF-1alpha). To investigate the consequences for translation of the interaction of EF-1alpha with F-actin,(More)
We present a fast MRI technique sensitized to microscopic susceptibility effects. The method combines elements of echo-shifted gradient-recalled MR imaging (TE > TR) with the acquisition of multiple k-space lines within a single TR-period. The sequence results in a much reduced imaging time as compared with conventional gradient-echo MRI methods. The(More)
Synuclein was initially named for its localization in both presynaptic nerve terminals and portions of nuclear envelope. However, subsequent studies only confirmed the presynaptic localization of this protein in the brain; its nuclear localization in the neurons remained elusive. Here, two new monoclonal antibodies against alpha-synuclein (alpha-SYN) were(More)
Peptidoglycans from bacterial cell walls trigger immune responses in insects and mammals. A peptidoglycan recognition protein, PGRP, has been cloned from moths as well as vertebrates and has been shown to participate in peptidoglycan-mediated activation of prophenoloxidase in the silk moth. Here we report that Drosophila expresses 12 PGRP genes, distributed(More)