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We characterize the survival, migration, and differentiation of human neurospheres derived from CNS stem cells transplanted into the ischemic cortex of rats 7 days after distal middle cerebral artery occlusion. Transplanted neurospheres survived robustly in naive and ischemic brains 4 wk posttransplant. Survival was influenced by proximity of the graft to(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE With the advent of thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke, reperfusion-associated mechanisms of tissue injury have assumed greater importance. In this experimental study, we used several MRI techniques to monitor the dynamics of secondary ischemic damage, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disturbances, and the development of vasogenic edema(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that overexpression of the proto-oncogene bcl-2 can protect neuron and neuron-like cell lines from growth factor deprivation, calcium ionophores, glutamate excitotoxicity, hypoglycemia, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. To determine whether Bcl-2 exhibits a similar protective effect in CNS neurons, we generated(More)
OBJECT The goals of this study were to determine the effects of delaying induction of mild hypothermia (33 degrees C) after transient focal cerebral ischemia and to ascertain whether the neuroprotective effects of mild hypothermia induced during the ischemic period are sustained over time. METHODS In the first study, rats underwent 2 hours of middle(More)
Mild hypothermia is an established neuroprotectant against cerebral ischemic injury. Studies have shown that inflammation potentiates cerebral ischemic injury, particularly in the setting of reperfusion. To further elucidate the mechanism by which mild hypothermia attenuates the inflammatory response, we assessed endothelial intercellular adhesion(More)
We previously showed that overexpressing the 70-kDa inducible heat shock protein in primary astrocyte cultures and in a rodent stroke model using viral vectors resulted in protection from ischemia and ischemia-like injury. However, viral transfection could potentially provoke a stress response itself; therefore, we examined whether transgenic mice(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Increased intracellular calcium accumulation is known to potentiate ischemic injury. Whether endogenous calcium-binding proteins can attenuate this injury has not been clearly established, and existing data are conflicting. Calbindin D28K (CaBP) is one such intracellular calcium buffer. We investigated whether CaBP overexpression is(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We previously showed that mild hypothermia protects against experimental stroke, even when cooling was delayed by 2 hours. Protection may be due in part to inhibiting inflammation. To clarify, we examined leukocyte infiltration, microglial activation, and adhesion molecule expression in models of stroke and pure brain inflammation. (More)
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is capable of noninvasively imaging acute cerebral ischemia. We demonstrate the utility of this technique by evaluating SNX-111, a novel N-type calcium channel blocker with potential neuroprotective properties, in a rodent model of transient focal ischemia. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between(More)
Brain areas damaged by stroke and seizures express high levels of the 72-kd heat shock protein (HSP72). Whether HSP72 represents merely a marker of stress or plays a role in improving neuron survival in these cases has been debated. Some induced tolerance experiments have provided correlative evidence for a neuroprotective effect, and others have documented(More)