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The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its high-affinity binding receptors, the tyrosine kinases Flt-1 and Flk-1, are thought to be important for the development of embryonic vasculature. Here we report that Flt-1 is essential for the organization of embryonic vasculature, but is not essential for endothelial cell differentiation. Mouse embryos(More)
Background—Prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) proteins, including PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3, mediate oxygen-dependent degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-␣ subunits. Although angiogenic roles of hypoxia-inducible factors are well known, the roles of PHDs in the vascular system remain to be established. Methods and Results—We evaluated angiogenic(More)
Angiogenesis is an important component in the development of thyroid goitre. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) represents a family of specific endothelial cell mitogens involved in normal angiogenesis and in tumour development. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of VEGF in thyroid tissues during goitre formation, and to(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the mechanisms governing corneal neovascularization and the appearance of goblet cells in a murine model of limbal insufficiency. METHODS The spatial and time-dependent relationship between corneal neovascularization and goblet cell density was analyzed in corneal flatmounts. Immunohistochemical detection of the vascular endothelial(More)
Background—The development of the vascular system is a complex process that involves communications among multiple cell types. As such, it is important to understand whether a specific gene regulates vascular development directly from within the vascular system or indirectly from nonvascular cells. Hypoxia-inducible factor-2␣ (Hif-2␣, or endothelial PAS(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent, tissue-resident cells that can facilitate tissue regeneration and thus, show great promise as potential therapeutic agents. Functional MSCs have been isolated and characterized from a wide array of adult tissues and are universally identified by the shared expression of a core panel of MSCs markers. One of(More)
BACKGROUND Aberrant growth of blood vessels in the eye forms the basis of many incapacitating diseases and currently the majority of patients respond to anti-angiogenic therapies based on blocking the principal angiogenic growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). While highly successful, new therapeutic targets are critical for the(More)
Here we investigate the role of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-2α in coordinating the development of retinal astrocytic and vascular networks. Three Cre mouse lines were used to disrupt floxed Hif-2α, including Rosa26(CreERT2), Tie2(Cre), and GFAP(Cre). Global Hif-2α disruption by Rosa26(CreERT2) led to reduced astrocytic and vascular development in(More)
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