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Despite its early discovery and high sequence homology to the other VEGF family members, the biological functions of VEGF-B remain poorly understood. We revealed here a novel function for VEGF-B as a potent inhibitor of apoptosis. Using gene expression profiling of mouse primary aortic smooth muscle cells, and confirming the results by real-time PCR using(More)
The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its high-affinity binding receptors, the tyrosine kinases Flt-1 and Flk-1, are thought to be important for the development of embryonic vasculature. Here we report that Flt-1 is essential for the organization of embryonic vasculature, but is not essential for endothelial cell differentiation. Mouse embryos(More)
The receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) expressed on the surface of endothelial cells are likely to play key roles in initiating the program of endothelial cell growth during development and subsequent vascularization during wound healing and tumorigenesis. Expression of the Tek RTK during mouse development is restricted primarily to endothelial cells and(More)
We report the detailed developmental expression profiles of three endothelial specific receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) flk-1, tek, tie, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the flk-1 ligand. We also examined the expression of the other VEGF receptor, flt-1, during placental development. flk-1, tek, and tie transcripts were detected(More)
We previously demonstrated the essential role of the flt-1 gene in regulating the development of the cardiovascular system. While the inactivation of the flt-1 gene leads to a very severe disorganization of the vascular system, the primary defect at the cellular level was unknown. Here we report a surprising finding that it is an increase in the number of(More)
We have studied the role of the basic helix-loop-helix-PAS transcription factor EPAS-1/hypoxia-inducible factor 2alpha in vascular development by gene targeting. In ICR/129 Sv outbred background, more than half of the mutants displayed varying degrees of vascular disorganization, typically in the yolk sac, and died in utero between embryonic day (E)9.5 and(More)
VEGF-B, a homolog of VEGF discovered a long time ago, has not been considered an important target in antiangiogenic therapy. Instead, it has received little attention from the field. In this study, using different animal models and multiple types of vascular cells, we revealed that although VEGF-B is dispensable for blood vessel growth, it is critical for(More)
PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3 are prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins that regulate the stability of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha subunits (HIF-alpha). To determine the roles of individual PHDs during mouse development, we disrupted all three Phd genes and found that Phd2(-/-) embryos died between embryonic days 12.5 and 14.5 whereas Phd1(-/-) or Phd3(-/-) mice(More)
Polycythemia is often associated with erythropoietin (EPO) overexpression and defective oxygen sensing. In normal cells, intracellular oxygen concentrations are directly sensed by prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD)-containing proteins, which tag hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha subunits for polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation by oxygen-dependent(More)
BACKGROUND Prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) proteins, including PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3, mediate oxygen-dependent degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-alpha subunits. Although angiogenic roles of hypoxia-inducible factors are well known, the roles of PHDs in the vascular system remain to be established. METHODS AND RESULTS We evaluated angiogenic(More)