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Electrophysiological and morphological properties of the neurons in cat motor cortex were investigated using intracellular recording and staining techniques in a brain slice preparation. In response to intracellular injection of depolarizing current pulses, four distinct types of firing patterns were observed among cat neocortical neurons. Regular-spiking(More)
Protein-protein interactions are known to be essential for specifying the transcriptional activities of homeoproteins. Here we show that representative members of the Msx and Dlx homeoprotein families form homo- and heterodimeric complexes. We demonstrate that dimerization by Msx and Dlx proteins is mediated through their homeodomains and that the residues(More)
CASK, a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) superfamily, binds to the carboxyl-terminus of beta-neurexins on the intracellular side of the presynaptic membrane. The guanylate kinase-like (GUK) domains of MAGUKs lack kinase activities, but might be important for mediating specific protein-protein interaction. By a yeast two-hybrid(More)
Relatively little is known about the molecular events that specify the rostrocaudal axis of the neural plate. Here we show that a member of the Distal-less (Dlx) homeobox gene family, Dlx5, is one of the earliest known markers for the most rostral ectoderm, before the formation of an overt neural plate. During late gastrulation Dlx5 expression becomes(More)
Neuronal-glial-vascular units now have been regarded as the basic functional elements of the CNS; however, their pathophysiological changes in the neurodegenerative condition are poorly defined. Herein we addressed these issues in the hippocampus of an Alzheimer's disease mouse model which was established by ovariectomy and then followed with 8 weeks of(More)
Huperzine A, a selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, was recently demonstrated to exert an antagonist effect on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in rat cerebral cortex. In the present study, the effects of six cholinesterase inhibitors, e.g. huperzine A, huperzine B, tacrine, donepezil (E2020), physostigmine and galanthamine on [3H]dizocilpine(More)
Ependymal cells form the walls of the ventricles, and take part in the production of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a predominant water channel of the brain, is restricted to basolateral plasma membranes of ependymal cells. The highly polarized expression of AQP4 suggests it may be involved in maintaining the structural and functional(More)
AIM To compare the effects of huperzine A (Hup A), tacrine, and E2020 on cholinergic transmission at mouse neuromuscular junction in vitro. METHODS The isolated mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations were used with the conventional intracellular recording technique. The miniature end-plate potentials (MEPP), the mean quantal content of end-plate(More)
AIM To study the effects of pentobarbital (PB) on acutely dissociated rat sacral dorsal commissural neurons (SDCN). METHODS Nystatin-perforated patch clamp recording was used. RESULTS (1) At a holding potential of -40 mV, PB induced inward Cl- current (IPB) in a concentration-dependent manner with a EC50 (95% confidence limits) of 416 (385-477)(More)
Huperzine A, a nootropic alkaloid isolated from a Chinese herb, has been proposed as one of the most promising agents to treat Alzheimer's disease. Recently, the agent was found to inhibit the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in rat cerebral cortex in addition to causing an inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase. In the present study, the mechanisms(More)