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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
Biopolyesters polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) produced by many bacteria have been investigated by microbiologists, molecular biologists, biochemists, chemical engineers, chemists, polymer experts and medical researchers. PHA applications as bioplastics, fine chemicals, implant biomaterials, medicines and biofuels have been developed and are covered in this(More)
Accumulating evidence has shown that dysfunctional mitochondria can be selectively removed by mitophagy. Dysregulation of mitophagy is implicated in the development of neurodegenerative disease and metabolic disorders. How individual mitochondria are recognized for removal and how this process is regulated remain poorly understood. Here we report that(More)
Polyhydoxyalkanoates (PHA) are polyesters produced by microorganisms under unbalanced growth conditions. They are generally biodegradable and thermoprocessable, making them attractive as biomaterials for applications in both conventional medical devices and tissue engineering. Over the past years, PHA, particularly poly 3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), copolymers(More)
To explore the genetic abnormalities that cooperate with AML1-ETO (AE) fusion gene to cause acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;21), we screened a number of candidate genes and identified 11 types of mutations in C-KIT gene (mC-KIT), including 6 previously undescribed ones among 26 of 54 (48.1%) cases with t(8;21). To address a possible chronological(More)
Mitochondrial autophagy, or mitophagy, is a major mechanism involved in mitochondrial quality control via selectively removing damaged or unwanted mitochondria. Interactions between LC3 and mitophagy receptors such as FUNDC1, which harbors an LC3-interacting region (LIR), are essential for this selective process. However, how mitochondrial stresses are(More)
Production of R-3-hydroxybutyric acid (3HB) was observed when genes of β-ketothiolase (PhbA), acetoacetyl CoA reductase (PhbB), and thioesterase II (TesB) were jointly expressed in Escherichia coli. TesB, generally regarded as a medium chain length acyl CoA thioesterase, was found, for the first time, to play an important role for transforming short chain(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miR) have been integrated into tumorigenic programs as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. The miR-124 was reported to be attenuated in several tumors, such as glioma, medulloblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, its role in cancer remains greatly elusive. In this study, we show that the miR-124 expression is(More)
NAD kinase was overexpressed to enhance the accumulation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) in recombinant Escherichia coli harboring PHB synthesis pathway via an accelerated supply of NADPH, which is one of the most crucial factors influencing PHB production. A high copy number expression plasmid pE76 led to a stronger NAD kinase activity than that brought(More)
The role of miR-26a in carcinogenesis appears to be a complicated one, in the sense that both oncogenic and tumor suppressive effects were reported in cancers such as glioblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma, respectively. Here, we report for the first time that miR-26a is downregulated in breast cancer specimens and cell lines and its transient(More)