Gunther Olaf Hofmann

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BACKGROUND Constrained functionality and phantom limb pain (PLP) are major concerns for forearm amputees. Neuroscientific investigations of PLP suggest that behaviorally relevant stimulation of the stump can decrease PLP. Furthermore the prosthesis user could use feedback information of the prosthesis hand for optimizing prosthesis motor control when(More)
INTRODUCTION Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been introduced to be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). The influence of AGEs on osteoarthritic fibroblast-like synovial cells (FLS) has been incompletely understood as yet. The present study investigates a potential influence of AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA) on cell(More)
The pain mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) sensitizes nociceptive pathways through EP2 and EP4 receptors, which are coupled to Gs proteins and increase cAMP. However, PGE2 also activates EP3 receptors, and the major signaling pathway of the EP3 receptor splice variants uses inhibition of cAMP synthesis via Gi proteins. This opposite effect raises the(More)
BACKGROUND Determining bone mineral density (BMD) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an established and widely used method that is also applied prior to biomechanical testing. However, DXA is affected by a number of factors. In order to delay decompositional processes, human specimens for biomechanical studies are usually stored at about -20(More)
BACKGROUND Arthroscopy is a highly sensitive method of evaluating high-grade cartilage lesions but the detection of low-grade lesions is often is unreliable. Objective measurements are required. A novel NIRS (near-infrared-spectroscopy) device for detection of low-grade cartilage defects was evaluated in a preliminary clinical study. METHODS In 12(More)
AIM In general, arthroscopy is considered the "gold standard" for the evaluation of cartilage lesions. In this multicenter survey, we ascertained the general opinion of surgeons regarding arthroscopic cartilage diagnoses. METHOD A total of 301 highly experienced arthroscopists (instructors of the AGA, the German-speaking society of arthroscopy) were(More)
Septic diseases of the bone and immediately surrounding soft tissues can be differentiated into osteitis or osteomyelitis. Both are a most serious diagnosis in modern traumatology and orthopaedic surgery. The basis for treatment is a highly specific, problem-adapted therapy with a defined strategy, the paramount goal being to preserve the stable(More)
Limb amputation and chronic phantom limb pain (PLP) are both associated with neural alterations at all levels of the neuraxis. We investigated gray matter volume of 21 upper limb amputees and 14 healthy control subjects. Results demonstrate that amputation is associated with reduced gray matter in areas in the motor cortex representing the amputated limb.(More)
The study was aimed at the identification of the electromyography (EMG)-force relationship of five different trunk muscles. EMG-force relationships differ depending on changes in firing rate and the concurrent recruitment of motor units, which are linear and S-shaped, respectively. Trunk muscles are viewed as belonging to either the local or global muscle(More)
Although axonal regeneration has been observed after replantation of avulsed ventral roots (VR) into the spinal cord, the functional outcome of this treatment in terms of motor reinnervation is unsatisfactory. In the present study, effects of single-dose ciliary and/or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (CNTF, BDNF) application on axon regeneration after C7(More)