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Structure determination of proteins and other macromolecules has historically required the growth of high-quality crystals sufficiently large to diffract x-rays efficiently while withstanding radiation damage. We applied serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain high-resolution structural information from(More)
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gammaray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB(More)
Computational models aid in the quantitative understanding of cell signalling networks. One important goal is to ascertain how multiple network components work together to govern cellular responses, that is, to determine cell 'signal-response' relationships. Several methods exist to study steady-state signals in the context of differential equation-based(More)
Free-electron lasers (FELs) present new challenges for camera development compared with conventional light sources. At SLAC a variety of technologies are being used to match the demands of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and to support a wide range of scientific applications. In this paper an overview of X-ray detector design requirements at FELs is(More)
Current design and fabrication techniques of hybrid devices are explained for the Drift Chamber and the Liquid Ar-pon Calorimeter for the Stanford Linear Collider Large Detector (SLD) at SLAC. Methods of developing layouts, raging from hand-cut templates to advanced designs utilizing CAD tools with special hybrid design software were applied. Physical and(More)
f ABSTRACT _. The halog processing syZitem for the Liquid Argon Calor-ir+er for the SLD project at SLAC is described. Amplifi-catron, storage of the analog information, and multiplexing is realized on specially developed hybrids, which will be mounted directly on the detector. This leads to a substantial reduction of the cable plant. Test results for the(More)
The front-end signal processing electronics for the drift-chambers of the Stanford Large Detector (SLD) at the Stanford Linear Collider is described. The system is implemented with printed-circuit boards which are shaped for direct mounting on the detector. Typically, a motherboard comprises 64 channels of transimpedance amplification and analog waveform(More)
In this paper the logical organization, physical packaging , and operation of the drift chamber electronics for the SLD at SLAC is described. The system processes signals from approximately 7,000 drift wires and is unusual in that most electronic functions are packaged on printed circuit boards within the detector. The circuits reside on signal-processing(More)
We report on the results of an extensive R&D program aimed at the evaluation of Thick-Gas Electron Multipliers (THGEM) as potential active elements for Digital Hadron Calorimetry (DHCAL). Results are presented on efficiency, pad multiplicity and discharge probability of a 10x10 cm 2 prototype detector with 1 cm 2 readout pads. The detector is comprised of(More)