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An empirical equation for the magnetization transfer (MT) FLASH signal is derived by analogy to dual-excitation FLASH, introducing a novel semiquantitative parameter for MT, the percentage saturation imposed by one MT pulse during TR. This parameter is obtained by a linear transformation of the inverse signal, using two reference experiments of proton(More)
From the half-angle substitution of trigonometric terms in the Ernst equation, rational approximations of the flip angle dependence of the FLASH signal can be derived. Even the rational function of the lowest order was in good agreement with the experiment for flip angles up to 20 degrees . Three-dimensional maps of the signal amplitude and longitudinal(More)
Normal ageing is associated with characteristic changes in brain microstructure. Although in vivo neuroimaging captures spatial and temporal patterns of age-related changes of anatomy at the macroscopic scale, our knowledge of the underlying (patho)physiological processes at cellular and molecular levels is still limited. The aim of this study is to explore(More)
PURPOSE To demonstrate how averaging of multiple gradient echoes can improve high-resolution FLASH (fast low angle shot) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the human brain. MATERIALS AND METHODS 3D-FLASH with multiple bipolar echoes was studied by simulation and in three experiments on human brain at 3T. First, the repetition time (TR) was increased by(More)
MRI techniques such as quantitative imaging and parallel transmit require precise knowledge of the radio-frequency transmit field (B(1) (+)). Three published methods were optimized for robust B(1) (+) mapping at 3T in the human brain: three-dimensional (3D) actual flip angle imaging (AFI), 3D echo-planar imaging (EPI), and two-dimensional (2D) stimulated(More)
PURPOSE Neuropsychological studies suggest frontal lobe dysfunctions in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). In this study we investigated whether an underlying mechanism could be a regional neuronal damage not visible with structural magnetic resonance (MR), but detectable with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). METHODS The study included(More)
Quantitative mapping of the longitudinal relaxation rate (R1=1/T1) in the human brain enables the investigation of tissue microstructure and macroscopic morphology which are becoming increasingly important for clinical and neuroimaging applications. R1 maps are now commonly estimated from two fast high-resolution 3D FLASH acquisitions with variable(More)
In vivo longitudinal relaxation times of N-acetyl compounds (NA), choline-containing substances (Cho), creatine (Cr), myo-inositol (mI), and tissue water were measured at 1.5 and 3 T using a point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence with short echo time (TE). T(1) values were determined in six different brain regions: the occipital gray matter (GM),(More)
Reliable identification of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a critical step in deep brain stimulation for Parkinson disease but difficult on T1-weighted stereotactic MR imaging. By simultaneous imaging of multiple gradient echoes, susceptibility contrast is added to conventional T1-weighted high-resolution MR image. Thus, the visibility of the STN is(More)
BACKGROUND Despite an increasing number of studies, findings of structural brain alterations in patients with Tourette syndrome are still inconsistent. Several confounders (comorbid conditions, medication, gender, age, IQ) might explain these discrepancies. In the present study, these confounders were excluded to identify differences in basal ganglia and(More)