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Unchlorinated treated waters from two Australian reservoirs were spiked with microcystin-LA and -LR extracted from a toxic scum of Microcystis aeruginosa. The two waters had considerably different water quality and therefore ozone demands. The spiked sample waters were ozonated using the batch method of ozonation at a range of doses and the samples were(More)
Results presented in this paper demonstrate that time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) can be used for the analysis of ballpoint pen inks producing mass spectra that were highly characteristic of the constituent dyes and inorganic substances used in their formulations. Analysis was performed directly off the substrate (typically document(More)
Clandestine synthesis of methamphetamine in Australia has predominantly started from pseudoephedrine extracted from over the counter cold and flu medications. However, recently introduced restrictions on the sale of these products have made pseudoephedrine much more difficult to obtain. As a result clandestine chemists have had to resort to other means of(More)
General synthetic routes to 4-methyl-5-arylpyrimidines and 5-arylpyrimidines are described. 4-Benzylpyrimidine, 4-methyl-5-phenylpyrimidine, 4-(4-methoxybenzyl)pyrimidine, and 4-methyl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine have been positively identified as route-specific by-products in the Leuckardt preparations of amphetamine and 4-methoxyamphetamine. Using(More)
This article describes the application of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to the recovery of manufacturing by-products and impurities from an illicit drug seizure. The preparation chosen for examination using this technique contained 4-methoxyamphetamine, an hallucinogenic amphetamine that has been encountered frequently in South Australia. Compounds(More)
In 0.22 caliber rimfire ammunition, the primer often contains lead or lead and barium compounds. As residues from these primers do not contain lead, barium, and antimony, they cannot be uniquely classified as gunshot residue (GSR) under ASTM designation E 1588-95. In many types of 0.22 caliber rimfire ammunition, the cartridge contains a primer sensitized(More)
The application of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) for the characterisation of gunshot residue (GSR) from 0.22 caliber rimfire ammunition is reported. Results obtained by TOF-SIMS were compared with conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. As could be expected, TOF-SIMS exhibited greater elemental sensitivity than(More)
INTRODUCTION There is discussion about incorporating a family history (FamHis) of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) in risk score algorithms. However, FamHis provides information on individual risk. Coronary artery calcification score (CACS) is a metric of atherosclerosis that may determine the individual risk within families at high risk of premature(More)
This paper reports the identification of a number of by-products, which are produced during the Wacker oxidation of safrole to 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone (MDP2P) using rho-benzoquinone and palladium chloride when methanol is utilised as the solvent. Also described is the retrieval of these compounds from illicit samples from a clandestine(More)
The application of solid-phase microextraction to the recovery of residues of organic explosives by headspace sampling is discussed. It was found that the technique was rapid and simple. Polydimethylsiloxane and polyacrylate resin were examined as adsorption phases and the latter was found to be more effective. It was found that non-volatile explosives(More)