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Unchlorinated treated waters from two Australian reservoirs were spiked with microcystin-LA and -LR extracted from a toxic scum of Microcystis aeruginosa. The two waters had considerably different water quality and therefore ozone demands. The spiked sample waters were ozonated using the batch method of ozonation at a range of doses and the samples were(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The prevalence of pancreatic cysts is not known, but asymptomatic pancreatic cysts are diagnosed with increasing frequency. We investigated the prevalence of pancreatic cysts in individuals who were screened by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as part of a preventive medical examination. METHODS Data from consecutive persons who(More)
Results presented in this paper demonstrate that time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) can be used for the analysis of ballpoint pen inks producing mass spectra that were highly characteristic of the constituent dyes and inorganic substances used in their formulations. Analysis was performed directly off the substrate (typically document(More)
This article describes the application of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to the recovery of manufacturing by-products and impurities from an illicit drug seizure. The preparation chosen for examination using this technique contained 4-methoxyamphetamine, an hallucinogenic amphetamine that has been encountered frequently in South Australia. Compounds(More)
The application of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) for the characterisation of gunshot residue (GSR) from 0.22 caliber rimfire ammunition is reported. Results obtained by TOF-SIMS were compared with conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. As could be expected, TOF-SIMS exhibited greater elemental sensitivity than(More)
General synthetic routes to 4-methyl-5-arylpyrimidines and 5-arylpyrimidines are described. 4-Benzylpyrimidine, 4-methyl-5-phenylpyrimidine, 4-(4-methoxybenzyl)pyrimidine, and 4-methyl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine have been positively identified as route-specific by-products in the Leuckardt preparations of amphetamine and 4-methoxyamphetamine. Using(More)
This paper reports the identification of a number of by-products, which are produced during the Wacker oxidation of safrole to 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone (MDP2P) using rho-benzoquinone and palladium chloride when methanol is utilised as the solvent. Also described is the retrieval of these compounds from illicit samples from a clandestine(More)
Clandestine synthesis of methamphetamine in Australia has predominantly started from pseudoephedrine extracted from over the counter cold and flu medications. However, recently introduced restrictions on the sale of these products have made pseudoephedrine much more difficult to obtain. As a result clandestine chemists have had to resort to other means of(More)
In 0.22 caliber rimfire ammunition, the primer often contains lead or lead and barium compounds. As residues from these primers do not contain lead, barium, and antimony, they cannot be uniquely classified as gunshot residue (GSR) under ASTM designation E 1588-95. In many types of 0.22 caliber rimfire ammunition, the cartridge contains a primer sensitized(More)
Forensic laboratories around the world have seen an increase in the number of drug seizures containing methorphan. Levomethorphan is a narcotic and a controlled substance, and its enantiomer dextromethorphan is an antitussive agent used in over-the-counter medications. For the forensic analysis of seized drugs containing methorphan, it is important to(More)