Gunnar Gustavsson

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The transdermal nicotine patch has proved an effective aid to smoking cessation. The ease of securing good compliance gives it a potential advantage over nicotine gum as an adjunct to brief advice and support in primary care settings where the major public health impact is obtained. In a preliminary report of half the sample of a randomized placebo(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of using a nicotine patch for 5 months with a nicotine nasal spray for 1 year. DESIGN Placebo controlled, double blind trial. SETTING Reykjavik health centre. SUBJECTS 237 smokers aged 22-66 years living in or around Reykjavik. INTERVENTIONS Nicotine patch for 5 months with nicotine nasal spray for 1 year (n=118)(More)
OBJECTIVES (a) To evaluate the efficacy of transdermal nicotine patches as an aid to stopping smoking when used as an adjunct to brief advice and support in a general practice setting; (b) to see whether an increase in nicotine patch dosage enhances the rate of initial cessation. DESIGN Randomised double blind placebo controlled parallel group study with(More)
The Collaborative European Anti-Smoking Evaluation (CEASE) was a European multicentre, randomized, double-blind placebo controlled smoking cessation study. The objectives were to determine whether higher dosage and longer duration of nicotine patch therapy would increase the success rate. Thirty-six chest clinics enrolled a total of 3,575 smokers. Subjects(More)
BACKGROUND Smoking is considered as an addiction to nicotine for most subjects consuming 10 cigarettes or more per day. Hence, nicotine replacement therapy by way of gum, patch, or spray has been advocated. The rationale of this study is to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of adding nicotine gum to the routine of subjects using the nicotine patch.(More)
Nicotine replacement by transdermal patches is more effective than placebo in smoking cessation, but has a low success rate after one year (9-18%). We tested whether this was attributed to insufficient nicotine replacement. We conducted a randomized trial to investigate the effect on outcome of different doses of transdermal nicotine replacement after(More)
We investigated the value of digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasonography and prostatic specific antigen (PSA) analysis as aids in general clinical practice and in the early detection of prostate cancer. Of a randomly selected population of 2,400 men 55 to 70 years old who were offered examination with digital rectal examination, transrectal(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of transurethral incision and resection of the prostate in patients with small to medium benign prostatic hyperplasia. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients were assessed preoperatively using the Madsen-Iversen symptom score, post- void residual urine volume, urinary flow and cystoscopy. Those eligible for the study were(More)
The purpose of this investigation was to study the relationship between skin blood flow, external pressure and temperature in the skin over bony prominences and muscle padded areas, when healthy individuals and patients with hemiplegia were lying in the supine position on a standard hospital mattress. The pressure values under the gluteus maximus muscle and(More)
The concentration of soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) is significantly elevated in smokers, but it is unclear if smoking is the direct cause of elevated sICAM-1 levels, if the relationship between smoking and sICAM-1 level is dose-dependent, and if smoking cessation may lead to a decline in sICAM-1. We sought to clarify the relationship between smoking and sICAM-1(More)