Gunnar Flemström

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Secretion of bicarbonate into the adherent layer of mucus gel creates a pH gradient with a near-neutral pH at the epithelial surfaces in stomach and duodenum, providing the first line of mucosal protection against luminal acid. The continuous adherent mucus layer is also a barrier to luminal pepsin, thereby protecting the underlying mucosa from proteolytic(More)
The barrier that protects the undamaged gastroduodenal mucosa from autodigestion by gastric juice is a dynamic multicomponent system. The major elements of this barrier are the adherent mucus gel layer, which is percolated by the HCO3- secretion from the underlying epithelial cells; the epithelial layer itself, which provides a permeability barrier and can(More)
The relationship between surface epithelial alkaline secretion and pH at the mucosal cell surface was studied in the duodenum of anesthetized rats. Alkaline secretion was measured by direct titration in situ using perfused segments of duodenum just distal to the Brunner gland area and devoid of pancreatic and biliary HCO3-. Mucosal surface pH was measured(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS The gastric mucosa is covered by a continuous layer of bicarbonate-containing mucus gel; the question arises how acid, formed in the gastric glands, moves into the lumen. METHODS The pH in the gastric mucus gel and gel thickness were measured in anesthetized rats with pH-sensitive microelectrodes (tip diameter, 1-5 microns). RESULTS(More)
Gastric fundic mucosae in vitro from four species of frog and Necturus secrete HCO-3 at a steady-state rate of 0.25-0.55 microneq-cm-2-h-1 which corresponds to 5-10% of maximal H+ secretion. Net alkalinization was quantitated in mucosae with spontaneously resting H+ secretion or in mucosae inhibited by histamine H2-receptor antagonists or SNC-. HCO-3(More)
Luminal acid (10 mM HCl) is a stimulant of surface epithelial HCO-3 transport in mammalian stomach and duodenum in vivo. To determine whether a humoral mechanism is involved in mediation of this response, amphibian fundic, antral, or proximal duodenal mucosae were mounted in parallel in an in vitro chamber with their nutrient (serosal) surfaces facing a(More)
The gastroduodenal mucosa is a dynamic barrier restricting entry of gastric acid and other potentially hostile luminal contents. Mucosal HCO3(-) is a key element in preventing epithelial damage, and knowledge about HCO3(-) transport processes, including the role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator channel, and their neurohumoral(More)
Vagal stimuli increase duodenal mucosal HCO-3 secretion and may provide anticipatory protection against acid injury, but duodenal enterocyte (duodenocyte) responses and cholinoceptor selectivity have not been defined. We therefore developed a stable primary culture model of duodenocytes from rats and humans. Brief digestion of scraped rat duodenal mucosa or(More)
Orexins are involved in the central nervous control of appetite and behavior, and in addition, they are present in endocrine cells and/or neurons in the intestine. The role of these peptides in peripheral regulation of intestinal secretion has not been investigated. We thus compared the effects of orexin A and some established secretagogues on duodenal(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the permeability of the adherent mucus gel layer in rat duodenum in vivo to macromolecules applied in the lumen. Rats were anesthetized with thiobarbiturate, and the duodenum was perfused with isotonic NaCl solution containing large-molecular-size secretagogues. Effects on mucosal HCO(-)(3) secretion and(More)