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Phorbol esters are the tetracyclic diterpenoids generally known for their tumor promoting activity. The phorbol esters mimic the action of diacyl glycerol (DAG), activator of protein kinase C, which regulates different signal transduction pathways and other cellular metabolic activities. They occur naturally in many plants of the family Euphorbiacaeae and(More)
Bromochloromethane (BCM), a halogenated methane analogue, was evaluated for its anti-methanogenic activity in both batch and continuous fermentation systems. For batch fermentation, a roughage-based substrate was incubated with mixed rumen microflora for 24 h at two concentrations of BCM (5 and 10 microm). A 89-94 % reduction in methane was obtained in(More)
Anaerobic ruminal fungi may play an active role in fibre degradation as evidenced by the production of different fibrolytic enzymes in culture filtrate. In the present study, 16 anaerobic fungal strains were isolated from ruminal and faecal samples of sheep and goats. Based on their morphological characteristics they were identified as species of(More)
Dairy or non-dairy based products were explored to determine the prevalence, molecular characterization, and antibiotic susceptibility of Cronobacter spp. The isolation was done as per ISO 22964:2006 on chromogenic media followed by further confirmation by biochemical- and 16S rRNA-based identification. From 219 samples, the chromogenic agar assay and(More)
Methane production via anaerobic degradation of organic-contaminated wastewater, semiliquid, or solid municipal waste of complex composition by methanogenic microbial communities is a multistage process involving at least four groups of microorganisms. These are hydrolytic bacteria (polysaccharolytic, proteolytic, and lipolytic), fermentative bacteria,(More)
Tannins (hydrolyzable and condensed) are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds that exert antinutritional effects on ruminants by forming complexes with dietary proteins. They limit nitrogen supply to animals, besides inhibiting the growth and activity of ruminal microflora. However, some gastrointestinal microbes are able to break tannin–protein complexes(More)
1 2 Ravinder Nagpal, Anil Kumar Puniya*, Gareth Wyn Griffith , Gunjan Goel, Monica Puniya , Jatinder 2 Paul Sehgal , Kishan Singh Dairy Microbiology Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001, India. Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Wales, Penglais, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion SY23 3DD, Wales 2 U.K. Dairy Cattle Nutrition(More)
Abbreviations BCM Bromochloromethane BW Body weight CT Condensed tannins DDMI Digestible dry matter intake DE Digestible energy DM Dry matter DMI Dry matter intake GE Gross energy HT Hydrolysable tannins MR Methane reduction on volume basis MRTD Methane reduction on truly degraded substrate basis OMD Organic matter digestibility PSM Plant secondary(More)
Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen associated with outbreaks of life-threatening necrotizing enterocolitis, meningitis and sepsis in neonates and infants. The pathogen possesses an array of virulence factors which aid in tissue adhesion, invasion and host cell injury. Although the identification and validation of C. sakazakii virulence(More)