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BACKGROUND The migration of doctors and nurses from Africa to developed countries has raised fears of an African medical brain drain. But empirical research on the causes and effects of the phenomenon has been hampered by a lack of systematic data on the extent of African health workers' international movements. METHODS We use destination-country census(More)
OBJECTIVE To understand the factors influencing health workers' choice to work in rural areas as a basis for designing policies to redress geographic imbalances in health worker distribution. METHODS A cohort survey of 412 nursing and medical students in Rwanda provided unique contingent valuation data. Using these data, we performed a regression analysis(More)
Acknowledgements: We are grateful to Rebecca Kinsey who compiled much of the original data, especially the perceptions-based corruption data, and to Uribe for providing invaluable insights and useful comments. Abstract The impacts of health care investments in developing and transition countries are typically measured by inputs and general health outcomes.(More)
The purpose of this article is to catalogue in a systematic way the available information about factors that may influence the outcome and variability of cascade impactor (CI) measurements of pharmaceutical aerosols for inhalation, such as those obtained from metered dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs) or products for nebulization; and to(More)
Protein histidine phosphorylation in eukaryotes has been sparsely studied compared to protein serine/threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation. In an attempt to rectify this by probing porcine liver cytosol with the phosphohistidine-containing peptide succinyl-Ala-His(P)-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide (phosphopeptide I), we observed a phosphatase activity that was(More)
A number of proposals today support a substantial increase in foreign aid levels to sub-Saharan Africa even though this region already receives a historically unprecedented volume of aid. This essay reviews the evidence regarding the potentially negative effects of aid dependence on state institutions, a topic which has received relatively little attention.(More)
PURPOSE Fifty-three Andersen Cascade Impactors (404 stages) have been investigated using an automated visual stage mensuration technique. A cleaning method was suggested for stages with jets smaller than nominal diameters. The impact of nonapproved jet diameters on result parameters from particle size analysis was evaluated theoretically. METHODS The jet(More)
Silica surfaces were consecutively treated with copolymers of cationic and anionic polyacrylamides (C-PAM and A-PAM, respectively) and the layer-by-layer build-up was continuously monitored with the aid of stagnation point adsorption reflectometry (SPAR). Four different charge densities of the cationic polymer and one charge density of the anionic polymer(More)