BACKGROUND The migration of doctors and nurses from Africa to developed countries has raised fears of an African medical brain drain. But empirical research on the causes and effects of the phenomenon has been hampered by a lack of systematic data on the extent of African health workers' international movements. METHODS We use destination-country census… (More)
Acknowledgements: We are grateful to Rebecca Kinsey who compiled much of the original data, especially the perceptions-based corruption data, and to Uribe for providing invaluable insights and useful comments. Abstract The impacts of health care investments in developing and transition countries are typically measured by inputs and general health outcomes.… (More)
A number of proposals today support a substantial increase in foreign aid levels to sub-Saharan Africa even though this region already receives a historically unprecedented volume of aid. This essay reviews the evidence regarding the potentially negative effects of aid dependence on state institutions, a topic which has received relatively little attention.… (More)
Any opinions expressed here are those of the author(s) and not those of IZA. Research published in this series may include views on policy, but the institute itself takes no institutional policy positions. The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in Bonn is a local and virtual international research center and a place of communication between science,… (More)
The purpose of this article is to catalogue in a systematic way the available information about factors that may influence the outcome and variability of cascade impactor (CI) measurements of pharmaceutical aerosols for inhalation, such as those obtained from metered dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs) or products for nebulization; and to… (More)
Acknowledgements: We are grateful to Rebecca Kinsey who compiled much of the original data, especially the perceptions-based corruption data, and to and Lars Sondergaard for providing valuable insights and comments.