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In Xenopus gastrulation, the involuting mesodermal and non-involuting ectodermal cells remain separated from each other, undergoing convergent extension. Here, we show that Eph-ephrin signaling is crucial for the tissue separation and convergence during gastrulation. The loss of EphA4 function results in aberrant gastrulation movements, which are due to(More)
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a second messenger molecule that transduces nitric-oxide- and natriuretic-peptide-coupled signalling, stimulating phosphorylation changes by protein kinase G. Enhancing cGMP synthesis or blocking its degradation by phosphodiesterase type 5A (PDE5A) protects against cardiovascular disease. However, cGMP stimulation(More)
In vertebrate early development, the neural tissue is specified along the antero-posterior (A-P) axis by the activity of graded patterning signals such as Wnt, Nodal and FGF. Attenuation of these signals has been shown to play critical roles in the determination of anterior neural region, but it remains poorly understood how FGF action is counteracted in(More)
Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) must control their number and fate to sustain the rapid heart growth during development, yet the intrinsic factors and environment governing these processes remain unclear. Here, we show that deletion of the ancient cell-fate regulator Numb (Nb) and its homologue Numblike (Nbl) depletes CPCs in second pharyngeal arches (PA2s)(More)
Neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are powerful tools for studying human neural development and diseases. Robust functional coupling of hPSC-derived neurons with target tissues in vitro is essential for modeling intercellular physiology in a dish and to further translational studies, but it has proven difficult to achieve. Here, we(More)
The pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a member of the glucagon peptide superfamily. The pacap gene encodes for a prepropeptide that is cleaved into a PACAP-related peptide (PRP) and PACAP. Two copies of the pacap gene, named pacap1 and pacap2, have been found in the genomes of zebrafish and other teleosts. The peptide sequence(More)
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