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In Xenopus gastrulation, the involuting mesodermal and non-involuting ectodermal cells remain separated from each other, undergoing convergent extension. Here, we show that Eph-ephrin signaling is crucial for the tissue separation and convergence during gastrulation. The loss of EphA4 function results in aberrant gastrulation movements, which are due to(More)
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a second messenger molecule that transduces nitric-oxide- and natriuretic-peptide-coupled signalling, stimulating phosphorylation changes by protein kinase G. Enhancing cGMP synthesis or blocking its degradation by phosphodiesterase type 5A (PDE5A) protects against cardiovascular disease. However, cGMP stimulation(More)
SIGNIFICANCE Despite decades of progress in cardiovascular biology and medicine, heart disease remains the leading cause of death, and there is no cure for the failing heart. Since heart failure is mostly caused by loss or dysfunction of cardiomyocytes (CMs), replacing dead or damaged CMs with new CMs might be an ideal way to reverse the disease. However,(More)
Despite extensive study of the development of the nephron, which is the functional unit of the kidney, the molecular mechanisms underlying the determination of nephron size remain largely unknown. Using the Xenopus pronephros, we demonstrate here that Tbx2, a T-box transcriptional repressor, functions to demarcate the territory of the pronephric nephron.(More)
Neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are powerful tools for studying human neural development and diseases. Robust functional coupling of hPSC-derived neurons with target tissues in vitro is essential for modeling intercellular physiology in a dish and to further translational studies, but it has proven difficult to achieve. Here, we(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. ER stress activates the unfolded protein response pathway, which contributes to apoptosis and insulin resistance. We investigated the roles of cytochrome P450 4A (CYP4A) in the regulation of hepatic ER stress, insulin resistance, and the(More)
In vertebrate early development, the neural tissue is specified along the antero-posterior (A-P) axis by the activity of graded patterning signals such as Wnt, Nodal and FGF. Attenuation of these signals has been shown to play critical roles in the determination of anterior neural region, but it remains poorly understood how FGF action is counteracted in(More)
A water-soluble imidazolium-based fluorescent chemosensor senses RNA selectively through fluorescence enhancement over other biologically relevant biomolecules in aqueous solution at physiological pH 7.4. Fluorescence image detection of RNA in living cells such as onion cells, HeLa cells, and animal model cells was successfully demonstrated which displays a(More)
Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) must control their number and fate to sustain the rapid heart growth during development, yet the intrinsic factors and environment governing these processes remain unclear. Here, we show that deletion of the ancient cell-fate regulator Numb (Nb) and its homologue Numblike (Nbl) depletes CPCs in second pharyngeal arches (PA2s)(More)
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) offer unprecedented opportunities for disease modeling and personalized medicine. However, PSC-derived cells exhibit fetal-like characteristics and remain immature in a dish. This has emerged as a major obstacle for their application for late-onset diseases. We previously showed that there is a neonatal arrest of long-term(More)