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In a study of top U.S. executives between 1996 and 2006, we examined the impact of underwater stock options on voluntary turnover. Financial and economic logic suggests that underwater options may carry a positive valuation based on Black–Scholes (BS) pricing, even when the current market price is below the exercise price. However, a variety of(More)
The purpose of this study was to advance our understanding of corporate environmental performance by linking its antecedents and consequences. This study examined how collaboration with research organizations, as a proactive strategic decision, influences the environmental performance of firms, which in turn leads to innovation performance. Using the data(More)
This study aims to expand our understanding of environmental performance by adopting exploration and exploitation concepts, which are key types of firm innovation. We reveal exploration and exploitation as two important antecedents of proactive and reactive environmental performance. We also identify the conditions under which the distinct effects of these(More)
Thirty eight cases of moyamoa disease, 21 children, 17 adults were encountered during a 16-year period at Yonsei University Medical Center. Clinical manifestations, together with computed tomography (CT) and angiographic findings were analyzed with a review of the literature. The mean age was 6.3 +/- 3.5 years in children and 36.8 +/- 9.9 years in adults.(More)
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