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Biotransformation of natural products has great potential for producing new drugs and could provide in vitro models of mammalian metabolism. Microbial transformation of the cytotoxic steroid cinobufagin was investigated. Cinobufagin could be specifically hydroxylated at the 12 beta-position by the fungus Alternaria alternata. Six products from a scaled-up(More)
Microbial transformation was used to prepare novel cytotoxic bufadienolides. Twelve products (3-14) were obtained from bufalin (1) by the fungus Mucor spinosus. Their structures were elucidated by high-resolution mass spectroscopy (HR-MS) and extensive NMR techniques, including 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT, 1H-1H correlation spectroscopy (COSY), two dimensional(More)
Thirteen compounds were isolated from the anomalous fruits of Gleditsia sinensis on the basis of bioassay-guided fractionation. These saponins together with six analogues or related compounds were tested for their cytotoxicities against six tumor cell lines by the MTT method. The induction of apoptosis in HL-60 cells by these compounds was determined(More)
The diterpenoid triepoxides are the major active constituents of Tripterygium wilfordii with potent antitumor and immune activities. But the strong toxicity of these compounds has restricted their application to a great extent. In order to find more effective compounds with less toxicity, structural modifications of triptonide (1) by Aspergillus niger (AS(More)
Small RNAs have emerged as critical regulators in the expression and function of eukaryotic genomes at the post-transcriptional level. To elucidate the functions of microRNA (miRNAs) and endogenous small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in tomato fruit ripening process, the deep sequencing and bioinformatics methods were combined to parse the small RNAs landscape(More)
Superficial scald is a physiological disorder of apple fruit characterized by sunken, necrotic lesions appearing after prolonged cold storage, although initial injury occurs much earlier in the storage period. To determine the degree to which the transition to cell death is an active process and specific metabolism involved, untargeted metabolic and(More)
Chitinases are a class of ubiquitous proteins that are widely distributed in plants. Defense is the major natural role for chitinases, primarily against fungal pathogens. Little is known regarding their non-defensive roles in seeds. In this study, a new class III chitinase from pomegranate seeds (pomegranate seed chitinase, PSC) was isolated and purified to(More)
Oligogalacturonic acids (OGs) are oligomers of alpha-1,4-linked galacturonosyl residues that are released from cell walls by the hydrolysis of polygalacturonic acids upon fruit ripening and under abiotic/biotic stress. OGs may induce ethylene production and fruit ripening, however, the mechanism(s) behind these processes is unknown. Tomato cultivar ‘Ailsa(More)
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