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It is well established that glutamate and its receptors, particularly the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), play a significant role in addiction and that the inhibition of glutamatergic hyperfunction reduces addictive behaviors in experimental animals. Specifically, NMDAR antagonists such as MK-801, and an inducer of the expression of glutamate(More)
Previous studies have shown that olfactory impairment by disrupting the olfactory epithelium prior to morphine administration attenuated the development addiction-related behaviors. However, it is unclear whether olfactory impairment will affect the expression of already established addiction-related behaviors. To address this issue, mice were conditioned(More)
Association between the reward caused by consuming drugs and the context in which they are consumed is essential in the formation of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Glucocorticoid receptor (GRs) activation in different regions of the brain affects reward-based reinforcement and memory processing. A wide array of studies have(More)
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