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Skin punch biopsies were performed in 54 selected patients with onchocerciasis participating in a clinical trial with amocarzine (CGP 6140) in Ecuador and Guatemala. Skin snipping for counting microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus was done before treatment (day 0) and day 4 and 8 following start of the therapy which consisted of 3 mg/kg amocarzine(More)
Cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells after antigen or mitogen stimulation was assessed before and after semiannual ivermectin treatment of 27 patients with onchocerciasis. Before treatment, Onchocerca volvulus antigen (OvA) elicited interleukin (IL)-5 production but inhibited production of IL-10, granulocyte-macrophage(More)
Adult Onchocerca volvulus, extracted from nodules before, and at intervals of two weeks to 12 months after, a single 150 micrograms/kg dose of ivermectin, were examined longitudinally and by sequential transverse sections. The mean number of male worms per nodule fell, and the proportion of nodules with no male worm rose, within two weeks of ivermectin and(More)
This paper assesses the effects on adult Onchocerca volvulus of monthly doses of ivermectin (150 micrograms/kg) given over 4, 8, and 12 months to patients in Guatemala. Nodules were removed 4 months after the last dose; the adult O. volvulus were extracted by collagenase digestion, studied by histological techniques, and compared with worms from untreated(More)
The effects of biannual ivermectin treatment at the community level on transmission of Onchocerca volvulus during the dry season were measured over a 30-month period in Guatemala. In the Los Tarrales Transmission Zone, an area encompassing three villages, significant changes occurred in both the prevalence and quantity of infection in the Simulium ochraceum(More)
BACKGROUND Elimination of onchocerciasis (river blindness) through mass administration of ivermectin in the six countries in Latin America where it is endemic is considered feasible due to the relatively small size and geographic isolation of endemic foci. We evaluated whether transmission of onchocerciasis has been interrupted in the endemic focus of(More)
Onchocerca volvulus worms, extracted from nodules by collagenase digestion, stained with haematoxylin and cleared in glycerol, were unravelled for longitudinal examination and later embedded in brain blocks for study of serial transverse sections. A classification system for female worms is proposed, based on the reproductive status of 446 worms from(More)
To eliminate transmission of Onchocerca volvulus, semiannual mass treatment with ivermectin (Mectizan; donated by Merck & Co) has been underway in Guatemala since 2000. We applied the 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) elimination criteria in the Santa Rosa focus of onchocerciasis transmission in Guatemala (10,923 persons at risk). No evidence of parasite(More)
Residents of five hyperendemic communities located in the central focus of onchocerciasis in Guatemala were treated with ivermectin (Mectizan) or placebo every six months for 30 months. The effects of treatment on prevalence and the intensity of skin infection (microfilarial skin density [MFD]) were evaluated. Significant and persistent reductions in both(More)
To identify possible immune mechanisms in human onchocerciasis, we compared a group of 12 individuals who had no clinical or parasitological evidence of infection, despite ongoing exposure to the parasite, with a group of 16 individuals from the same area who had active Onchocerca volvulus infection. Despite having less parasite-specific serum antibody, the(More)