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Smoldering combustion, the slow burning process associated typically with porous solids (e.g., charcoal), is here proposed as a novel remediation approach for nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) embedded in porous media. Several one-dimensional vertical smoldering experiments are conducted on quartz sand containing fresh coal tar at an initial concentration of(More)
Atmospheric oxygen (O(2)) is estimated to have varied greatly throughout Earth's history and has been capable of influencing wildfire activity wherever fuel and ignition sources were present. Fires consume huge quantities of biomass in all ecosystems and play an important role in biogeochemical cycles. This means that understanding the influence of O(2) on(More)
This paper presents a series of experiments conducted to assess the potential of smouldering combustion as a novel technology for remediation of contaminated land by water-immiscible organic compounds. The results from a detailed study of the conditions under which a smouldering reaction propagates in sand embedded with coal tar are presented. The objective(More)
Smoldering combustion has been introduced recently as a potential remediation strategy for soil contaminated by nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). Published proof-of-concept experiments demonstrated that the process can be self-sustaining (i.e., requires energy input only to start the process) and achieve essentially complete remediation of the contaminated(More)
A methodology based on an automated optimization technique that uses a genetic algorithm (GA) is developed to estimate the material properties needed for CFD-based fire growth modeling from bench-scale fire test data. The proposed methodology involves simulating a bench-scale fire test with a theoretical model, and using a GA to locate a set of model(More)
In this work, the kinetic parameters governing the thermal and oxidative degradation of flexible polyurethane foam are determined using thermogravimetric data and a genetic algorithm. These kinetic parameters are needed in the theoretical modeling of the foam's smoldering behavior. Experimental thermogravimetric mass-loss data are used to explore the(More)
Two important tunnel safety technologies are addressed. The majority of long road tunnels have ventilation systems. In the event of a fire in a tunnel, such systems will influence fire development in a number of different ways. Recent research and observations on these influences are presented. The effects discussed are critical ventilation velocity for(More)
A series of experiments of shallow and strong smouldering fronts in boreal peat have been conducted under laboratory conditions to study the CO and CO2 emissions. Peat samples of 100 mm by 100 mm in cross section and 50 mm in depth were smouldered in the cone calorimeter apparatus. Two laboratory variables, moisture content and the external heat flux are(More)