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An acylation/deacylation cycle is necessary to maintain the steady-state subcellular distribution and biological activity of S-acylated peripheral proteins. Despite the progress that has been made in identifying and characterizing palmitoyltransferases (PATs), much less is known about the thioesterases involved in protein deacylation. In this work, we(More)
Cadherin junctions arise from the integrated action of cell adhesion, signaling, and the cytoskeleton. At the zonula adherens (ZA), a WAVE2-Arp2/3 actin nucleation apparatus is necessary for junctional tension and integrity. But how this is coordinated with cadherin adhesion is not known. We now identify cortactin as a key scaffold for actin regulation at(More)
BACKGROUND The pathophysiological basis of diabetic gastroparesis is poorly understood, in large part due to the almost complete lack of data on neuropathological and molecular changes in the stomachs of patients. Experimental models indicate various lesions affecting the vagus, muscle, enteric neurons, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) or other cellular(More)
Signaling from JAK (Janus kinase) protein kinases to STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) transcription factors is key to many aspects of biology and medicine, yet the mechanism by which cytokine receptors initiate signaling is enigmatic. We present a complete mechanistic model for activation of receptor-bound JAK2, based on an(More)
GAP-43 (growth-associated protein-43) is a dually palmitoylated protein, at cysteine residues at positions 3 and 4, that mostly localizes in plasma membrane both in neural and non-neural cells. In the present study, we have examined membrane association, subcellular distribution and intracellular trafficking of GAP-43 in CHO (Chinese hamster ovary)-K1(More)
The epithelial zonula adherens (ZA) is a specialized adhesive junction where actin dynamics and myosin-driven contractility coincide. The junctional cytoskeleton is enriched in myosin II, which generates contractile force to support junctional tension. It is also enriched in dynamic actin filaments, which are replenished by ongoing actin assembly. In this(More)
In neurosecretory cells, secretory vesicles (SVs) undergo Ca(2+)-dependent fusion with the plasma membrane to release neurotransmitters. How SVs cross the dense mesh of the cortical actin network to reach the plasma membrane remains unclear. Here we reveal that, in bovine chromaffin cells, SVs embedded in the cortical actin network undergo a highly(More)
Ghrelin is a recently discovered stomach hormone that stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion, food intake, adiposity, and growth. In this report, we present new and previously published data from our laboratory showing that stomach ghrelin production and secretion are increased, and that GH release in response to exogenous ghrelin is enhanced in the aged(More)
S-acylation, the covalent attachment of palmitate and other fatty acids on cysteine residues, is a reversible post-translational modification that exerts diverse effects on protein functions. S-acylation is catalyzed by protein acyltransferases (PAT), while deacylation requires acyl-protein thioesterases (APT), with numerous inhibitors for these enzymes(More)
The zonula adherens (ZA) of epithelial cells is a site of cell-cell adhesion where cellular forces are exerted and resisted. Increasing evidence indicates that E-cadherin adhesion molecules at the ZA serve to sense force applied on the junctions and coordinate cytoskeletal responses to those forces. Efforts to understand the role that cadherins play in(More)