Guillermo A. Escobar

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BACKGROUND Extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms are uncommon and are usually associated with trauma or dissection. Primary cervical vertebral aneurysms are even rarer and are not well described. The presentation and natural history are unknown and operative management can be difficult. Accessing aneurysms at the skull base can be difficult and, because(More)
SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA The transfusion of more than 6 units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) within the first 12 hours of injury is the strongest independent predictor of multiple organ failure (MOF). This suggests that stored blood contains bioactive factors that may modify the immunoinflammatory response. METHODS To simulate postinjury major(More)
OBJECTIVE Renal dysfunction following endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality. We studied the use of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) as a non-nephrotoxic contrast agent for EVAR. METHODS Recorded data from 114 consecutive patients who underwent EVAR with CO(2) as the contrast agent over 44 months(More)
Non-islet cell tumor induced hypoglycemia (NICTH) is a very rare phenomenon, but even more so in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. It tends to present in large or metastatic tumors, and can appear at any time in the progression of the disease. We present herein a case of NICTH in a GIST tumor and report an exon 9 mutation associated to it. A thirty nine(More)
BACKGROUND Tumor necrosis factor receptor I recruits tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated death domain (TRADD) and multiple kinases that ultimately phosphorylate inhibitor kappa B (IKB alpha). Degradation of phospho-IKB alpha (p-IKB alpha) frees nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) to be active and phosphorylated. Many receptors require clathrin-mediated(More)
BACKGROUND To assess the efficacy of axillary vein transplantation in the treatment of severe chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). METHODS Among 139 complex venous reconstructions performed between 1991 and 2007 for CVI, 18 patients underwent upper extremity to lower extremity venous valve transplantation. An upper extremity valve was transplanted to the(More)
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is a live, attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis commonly used for the treatment of superficial bladder carcinoma. Intravesical BCG is well tolerated despite side effects that range from hematuria to sepsis syndrome. A very rare complication is vascular infection developing a mycotic BCG aneurysm, especially in the(More)
Model systems demonstrate that progression to ESRD is driven by progressive podocyte depletion (the podocyte depletion hypothesis) and can be noninvasively monitored through measurement of urine pellet podocyte mRNAs. To test these concepts in humans, we analyzed urine pellet mRNAs from 358 adult and pediatric kidney clinic patients and 291 controls (n=1143(More)
BACKGROUND Patients treated with anticoagulants frequently require urgent vascular procedures and elevated prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (INR) is traditionally thought to increase access site bleeding complications after sheath removal. We aimed to determine the safety of percutaneous arterial procedures on patients with a high INR in the(More)
Immunologic therapies for melanoma rarely succeed, suggesting a persistent counter-regulatory immune modulation. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and plasmacytoid subpopulations of dendritic cells (pDCs) inhibit the immune response. We hypothesize that melanoma upregulates Tregs and subpopulations of immunosuppressive dendritic cells (DCs). Peripheral blood(More)