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BACKGROUND While the Northern Hemisphere experiences the effects of the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus, data from the recent influenza season in the Southern Hemisphere can provide important information on the burden of disease in children. METHODS We conducted a retrospective case series involving children with acute infection of the lower(More)
The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response is important for the control of viral replication during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. The attachment glycoprotein (G) of RSV does not encode major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted epitopes in BALB/c mice (H-2(d)). Furthermore, studies to date have described an absence of significant CTL(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of hospitalization in infants. A formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine was used to immunize children and elicited nonprotective, pathogenic antibody. Immunized infants experienced increased morbidity after subsequent RSV exposure. No vaccine has been licensed since that time. A widely accepted hypothesis(More)
The attachment protein (glycoprotein) of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has long been associated with disease potentiation and respiratory symptoms. The glycoprotein has a conserved cysteine-rich region (GCRR) whose function is unknown and which is not necessary for efficient viral replication. In this report, we show that the GCRR is a powerful(More)
RATIONALE Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent cause of significant lower respiratory illness in infants and young children, but its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The transcription factor Nrf2 protects lungs from oxidative injury and inflammation via antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated gene induction. OBJECTIVES The(More)
The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response plays an important role in the control of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) replication and the establishment of a Th1-CD4+ T cell response against the virus. Despite lacking Major Histocompatibility Complex I (MHC I)-restricted epitopes, the attachment G glycoprotein of RSV enhances CTL activity toward other RSV(More)
Pandemic influenza viruses often cause severe disease in middle-aged adults without preexisting comorbidities. The mechanism of illness associated with severe disease in this age group is not well understood. Here we find preexisting serum antibodies that cross-react with, but do not protect against, 2009 H1N1 influenza virus in middle-aged adults.(More)
OBJECTIVES We characterized the T helper cytokine profiles in the respiratory tract of infants infected with influenza virus, human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus to examine whether these agents elicit similar cytokine responses and whether T helper type 2 polarization is associated with wheezing and severe disease. METHODS A prospective(More)
Recent in vivo studies suggest that hMPV is a poor inducer of inflammatory cytokines and that clinical symptoms may not be related to immune-mediated pathogenesis as it has been proposed for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human parainfluenza 3 (HPF3). Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen presenting cells, and very effective at inducing(More)
Enhanced respiratory syncytial virus disease, a serious pulmonary disorder that affected recipients of an inactivated vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus in the 1960s, has delayed the development of vaccines against the virus. The enhanced disease was characterized by immune complex-mediated airway hyperreactivity and a severe pneumonia associated(More)