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Differential cell adhesion and cortex tension are thought to drive cell sorting by controlling cell-cell contact formation. Here, we show that cell adhesion and cortex tension have different mechanical functions in controlling progenitor cell-cell contact formation and sorting during zebrafish gastrulation. Cortex tension controls cell-cell contact(More)
Cytokinesis, the physical separation of daughter cells at the end of mitosis, requires precise regulation of the mechanical properties of the cell periphery. Although studies of cytokinetic mechanics mostly focus on the equatorial constriction ring, a contractile actomyosin cortex is also present at the poles of dividing cells. Whether polar forces(More)
Blebs are spherical membrane protrusions often observed during cell migration, cell spreading, cytokinesis, and apoptosis, both in cultured cells and in vivo. Bleb expansion is thought to be driven by the contractile actomyosin cortex, which generates hydrostatic pressure in the cytoplasm and can thus drive herniations of the plasma membrane. However, the(More)
When cells move using integrin-based focal adhesions, they pull in the direction of motion with large, ∼100 Pa, stresses that contract the substrate. Integrin-mediated adhesions, however, are not required for in vivo confined migration. During focal adhesion-free migration, the transmission of propelling forces, and their magnitude and orientation, are not(More)
How tissue shape emerges from the collective mechanical properties and behavior of individual cells is not understood. We combine experiment and theory to study this problem in the developing wing epithelium of Drosophila. At pupal stages, the wing-hinge contraction contributes to anisotropic tissue flows that reshape the wing blade. Here, we quantitatively(More)
Biological tissues must generate forces to shape organs and achieve proper development. Such forces often result from the contraction of an apical acto-myosin meshwork. Here we describe an alternative mechanism for tissue contraction, based on individual cell volume change. We show that during Drosophila dorsal closure (DC), a wound healing-related process,(More)
Although cellular tumor-suppression mechanisms are widely studied, little is known about mechanisms that act at the level of tissues to suppress the occurrence of aberrant cells in epithelia. We find that ectopic expression of transcription factors that specify cell fates causes abnormal epithelial cysts in Drosophila imaginal discs. Cysts do not form cell(More)
The cortex is a thin, crosslinked actin network lying immediately beneath the plasma membrane of animal cells. Myosin motors exert contractile forces in the meshwork. Because the cortex is attached to the cell membrane, it plays a central role in cell shape control. The proteic constituents of the cortex undergo rapid turnover, making the cortex both(More)
Contractile actomyosin rings drive various fundamental morphogenetic processes ranging from cytokinesis to wound healing. Actomyosin rings are generally thought to function by circumferential contraction. Here, we show that the spreading of the enveloping cell layer (EVL) over the yolk cell during zebrafish gastrulation is driven by a contractile actomyosin(More)
The composite and versatile structure of the cytoskeleton confers complex mechanical properties on cells. Actin filaments sustain the cell membrane and their dynamics insure cell shape changes. For example, the lamellipodium moves by actin polymerization, a mechanism that has been studied using simplified experimental systems. Much less is known about the(More)