Guillaume Ravel

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Although the wide clinical experience shows that vaccines are generally safe, concern has been expressed for a causal link between vaccines and autoimmune diseases. Even though the mechanisms of autoimmunity are ill-elucidated, the role of pre-existing risk factors including genetic predisposition and environmental factors is largely accepted. The present(More)
The popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) is being considered as a tool to predict the potential of drugs for inducing systemic autoimmune and hypersensitivity reactions. Despite the use of different technical approaches and the evaluation of over 130 compounds, the sensitivity and specificity of the PLNA are still debatable due to many false positive and(More)
The popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) derives from the hypothesis that some supposedly immune-mediated adverse effects induced by certain pharmaceuticals involve a mechanism resembling a graft-versus-host reaction. The injection of many but not all of these compounds into the footpad of mice or rats produces an increase in the weight and/or cellularity of(More)
The field of vaccines is markedly evolving with the introduction and development of many new concepts and formulations, as well as new indications. Based on the current clinical experience, vaccines can be considered safe in most cases. Nevertheless, allergy and, to a lesser extent, autoimmunity have repeatedly been described or suspected as rare adverse(More)
The induction or exacerbation of autoimmune diseases is a potential adverse effect of immunostimulating drugs. Vaccines have been suspected of such actions. Epidemiological studies, however, have so far failed to demonstrate any causal relationship between vaccination and autoimmune diseases, including insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). In this(More)
BACKGROUND The development and function of the immune system was assessed in juvenile SD rats following pre- or post-natal exposure to cyclosporin. The main objective was to assess the feasibility of the methods available for the detection of adverse effects on the development of the immune system for use in the safety assessment of medicines. METHODS In(More)
The popliteal lymph node (PLN) assay has been proposed as a tool to predict drugs and chemicals with the potential to induce systemic autoimmune reactions in man. In this assay, weight and cellularity indices typically are the measured endpoints. The present study was conducted to test whether incorporation of tritiated thymidine could improve sensitivity(More)
Biotechnology-derived products represent a class of increasingly numerous drugs. One of their major characteristics is extreme diversity, which requires specific approaches for the preclinical evaluation of their safety. The selection of relevant animal species is not easy, as most of these products are human-specific. Thus, only one species will often be(More)
As natural killer cells play a significant role in innate immunity against viruses and neoplasia, the measurement of natural killer cell activity has long been recommended for nonclinical immunotoxicity evaluation. A number of agrochemical, industrial and environmental chemicals have been shown to impair natural killer cell activity. However, direct(More)
This study was conducted to review the progression with age of renal and other changes in (NZB x NZW) F1 females obtained from a commercial colony, housed under SPF conditions. Sixty-two mice were given food and water ad libitum and sacrificed at intervals up to 47 weeks of age. Routine haematology and urinalysis were performed at regular intervals. The(More)