Learn More
Elements that excise and integrate, such as prophages, and transfer by conjugation, such as plasmids, have been found in various bacteria. These elements appear to have a diversified set of characteristics including cell-to-cell contact using pili or cell aggregation, transfer of single-stranded or double-stranded DNA, low or high specificity of integration(More)
In 2007, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) made the ambitious promise to generate mutations in virtually every protein-coding gene of the mouse genome in a concerted worldwide action. Now, 5 years later, the IKMC members have developed high-throughput gene trapping and, in particular, gene-targeting pipelines and generated more than 17,400(More)
Fibroblasts are the major mesenchymal cell type in connective tissue and deposit the collagen and elastic fibres of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Even within a single tissue, fibroblasts exhibit considerable functional diversity, but it is not known whether this reflects the existence of a differentiation hierarchy or is a response to different(More)
Two large-scale phenotyping efforts, the European Mouse Disease Clinic (EUMODIC) and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Mouse Genetics Project (SANGER-MGP), started during the late 2000s with the aim to deliver a comprehensive assessment of phenotypes or to screen for robust indicators of diseases in mouse mutants. They both took advantage of available(More)
The function of the majority of genes in the mouse and human genomes remains unknown. The mouse embryonic stem cell knockout resource provides a basis for the characterization of relationships between genes and phenotypes. The EUMODIC consortium developed and validated robust methodologies for the broad-based phenotyping of knockouts through a pipeline(More)
OBJECTIVE The origin of the cells that contribute to skin fibrosis is unclear. We undertook the present study to assess the contribution of Sox2-expressing skin progenitor cells to bleomycin-induced scleroderma. METHODS Scleroderma was induced, by bleomycin administration, in wild-type mice and in mice in which CCN2 was deleted from Sox2-expressing cells.(More)
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a secreted protein that regulates hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) levels in humans. PCSK9 has also been shown to regulate the levels of additional membrane-bound proteins in vitro, including the very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and the(More)
The 34,734-bp element ICESt1 from Streptococcus thermophilus CNRZ368 is site-specifically integrated into the 3(') end of the gene fda. ICESt1 encodes integrative functions and putative transfer functions. Six proteins of the putative conjugative system of ICESt1 are related to those encoded by the conjugative transposon Tn916 from Enterococcus faecalis. A(More)
The 34 734-bp integrative and potentially conjugative element (putative ICE) ICESt1 has been previously found to be site-specifically integrated in the 3' end of the fda locus of Streptococcus thermophilus CNRZ368. Four types of genomic islands related to ICESt1 are integrated in the same position in seven other strains of S. thermophilus. One of these(More)
Vesicular (v)- and target (t)-SNARE proteins assemble in SNARE complex to mediate membrane fusion. Tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicular-associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP/VAMP7), a vesicular SNARE expressed in several cell types including neurons, was previously shown to play a major role in exocytosis involved in neurite growth in cultured neurons.(More)