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6 Distributions of species, animals or plants, terrestrial or aquatic, are influenced by numerous 7 factors such as physical and biogeographical gradients. Dominant wind and current directions 8 cause the appearance of gradients in physical conditions whereas biogeographical gradients can 9 be the result of historical events (e.g. glaciations). No spatial(More)
One hundred four serogroup A meningococci in our collection, isolated in Africa from 1988 to 1999, were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Our results and data from the Internet indicate that sequence type 5 (ST-5) strains were responsible for most of African outbreaks and sporadic cases during this period. In 1995, a new clone,(More)
Protein engineering approaches are often a combination of rational design and directed evolution using display technologies. Here, we test "loop grafting," a rational design method, on three-finger fold proteins. These small reticulated proteins have exceptional affinity and specificity for their diverse molecular targets, display protease-resistance, and(More)
Although snake venoms have been the subject of intense research, primarily because of their tremendous potential as a bioresource for design and development of therapeutic compounds, some specific groups of snakes, such as the genus Atractaspis, have been completely neglected. To date only limited number of toxins, such as sarafotoxins have been well(More)
Responses of soil properties and crop yields to different inorganic and organic amendments in a Swiss conventional farming system. Access to the published version may require subscription. A B S T R A C T In agro-ecosystems, fertilization practices are crucial for sustaining crop productivity. Here, based on a 50-year long-term experiment, we studied the(More)
Muscarinic toxins isolated from the venom of Dendroaspis snakes may interact with a high affinity, large selectivity and various functional properties with muscarinic receptors. Therefore, these toxins are invaluable tools for studying the physiological role, molecular functioning and structural organization of the five subtypes of these G-Protein Coupled(More)
We have carried out simulations of supersonic light jets in order to model the features observed in optical and radio images of the western hot-spot in the radio galaxy Pictor A. We have considered jets with density ratios η = 10 −2 − 10 −4 , and Mach numbers ranging between 5 and 50. From each simulation, we have generated ray-traced maps of radio surface(More)
Interaction of an effector M with acetylcholinesterase (EC according to the model of Krupka and Laidler was analysed. Some usual functions of [M] : 1/VM, [(VO/VM)-1]/[M] (where VO and VM are the steady state rates in the absence and in the presence of modifiers, respectively), vertical intercept 1/VM, slope KM/VM and absolute value of reciprocal(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o Available online xxxx Potassium (K) is a crucial element for plant nutrition and its availability and spatial distribution in agricultural soils is influenced by many agro-environmental factors. In Switzerland, a soil monitoring network (FRIBO) was established in 1987 with 250 sites distributed over the whole of the canton of Fribourg(More)
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