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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that participate in posttranscriptional gene regulation in a sequence-specific manner. However, little is understood about the role(s) of miRNAs in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We used miRNA expression microarrays on RNA extracted from human brain tissue from the University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Center(More)
RNA silencing phenomena were first discovered in plants, yet only the RNA interference pathway in animals has been subject to biochemical analysis. Here, we extend biochemical analysis to plant RNA silencing. We find that standard wheat germ extract contains Dicer-like enzymes that convert double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into two classes of small interfering(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 22-nucleotide noncoding RNAs that can regulate gene expression by directing mRNA degradation or inhibiting productive translation. Dominant mutations in PHABULOSA (PHB) and PHAVOLUTA (PHV) map to a miR165/166 complementary site and impair miRNA-guided cleavage of these mRNAs in vitro. Here, we confirm that disrupted(More)
Stem cells are crucial in morphogenesis in plants and animals. Much is known about the mechanisms that maintain stem cell fates or trigger their terminal differentiation. However, little is known about how developmental time impacts stem cell fates. Using Arabidopsis floral stem cells as a model, we show that stem cells can undergo precise temporal(More)
Lysine catabolism in plants is initiated by a bifunctional LKR/SDH (lysine-ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase) enzyme encoded by a single LKR/SDH gene. Yet, the AtLKR/SDH gene of Arabidopsis also encodes a second gene product, namely a monofunctional SDH. To elucidate the regulation of lysine catabolism in Arabidopsis through these two gene(More)
The inferior spikelets are defined to be those at portions where the grains receive less photosynthetic products during the seed development. The typical inferior spikelets are physically located on the proximal secondary branches in a rice panicle and traditionally characterized by a later flowering time and a slower grain-filling rate, compared to those(More)
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), often encoded by a multi-gene family, causes oxidative browning, a significant problem in many food products. Low-browning potatoes were produced previously through suppression of PPO gene expression, but the contribution of individual PPO gene isoform to the oxidative browning process was unknown. Here we investigated the(More)
Maize grain yield depends mainly on the photosynthetic efficiency of functional leaves, which is controlled by an array of gene networks and other factors, including environmental conditions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that play important roles in plant developmental regulation. A few senescence-associated miRNAs (SA-miRNAs) have been(More)
PURPOSE This study aims to screen microRNAs (miRNAs), for an early diagnosis of colorectal cancer, by deep sequencing and evaluation of total miRNAs using clinical samples from a Chinese patient population. METHODS Total small RNAs from normal colonic mucosa, colonic adenomas, and colorectal cancer tissues were prepared for miRNA analysis by deep(More)
Kernel development is an important dynamic trait that determines the final grain yield in maize. To dissect the genetic basis of maize kernel development process, a conditional quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted using an immortalized F2 (IF2) population comprising 243 single crosses at two locations over 2 years. Volume (KV) and density(More)