Guilherme Gonçalves

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Since the 1980s, the occurrence of pertussis cases in developed countries has increased and shifted towards older age groups. This resurgence follows 30 years of intense mass vaccination, and has been attributed primarily to three factors: (1) more effective diagnosis of the disease, (2) waning of vaccine-induced immunity, and (3) loss of vaccine efficacy(More)
This study was conducted to evaluate factors affecting the levels of total IgG (tIgG) and measles specific IgG (mIgG) in mother and cord sera, and the efficiency of transplacental transport of tIgG and mIgG. The study was conducted in four hospitals in Oporto, Portugal, where 1539 women and their newborns were enrolled. Measles IgG levels were lower among(More)
OBJECTIVES To track ongoing trends in pneumococcal (Sp) serotype carriage under the selection pressure of moderate pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) use, children in a community in Portugal were studied in the same months in 3 consecutive years. METHODS Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected (children aged 3 months to <7 years) in 8 urban daycare(More)
Maternal and cord sera (96 pairs) were tested to measure antitetanus toxin IgG (ATT IgG) levels, using a commercial enzyme immunoassay. One mother had no detectable antitetanus antibody and four more had levels below those considered to be reliably protective (<160 mIU/ml). All five had been eligible for vaccination during pregnancy according to Portuguese(More)
In populations vaccinated with two doses of combined measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR), the serum levels of antibodies against measles depend on the vaccination schedule, time elapsed from the last dose and the area-specific epidemiological situation. Variables measuring "schedule" are age at first and second doses of MMR and intervals derived from that.(More)
The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine became available in Portugal in 2001. Although not included in the national immunization program, vaccination coverage is high (over 60%). We studied for the first time the rates of nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage of pneumococci, antibiotic resistance patterns and serotypes among children attending day-care centers(More)
BACKGROUND Nasal bacterial colonization is often dubbed "asymptomatic." We hypothesized that rhinitis, common in preschool children, is associated with bacterial colonization and that respiratory viruses, which cause rhinitis, interact with bacteria in ways which promote transmission. METHODS Five hundred eighty-five children (4.2-73.6 months) attending(More)
A European football tournament (EURO 2004) took place in Portugal, from the 12 June to the 4 July 2004. Portugal's Northern Regional Health Authority serves a population of 3.2 million people. This region hosted 12 matches, more than any other region. We describe the communicable disease surveillance activities in the region, during EURO 2004. Ten foodborne(More)
The high mortality of pregnant women is one of the main features of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in endemic countries. With the emergence of genotype 3 HEV in industrialized countries, attention should be given to pregnant women from these regions since the effect of genotype 3 HEV in pregnancy is not yet known. In this study, archived sera dating from(More)
Maternal and cord sera (231 pairs) were tested to measure rubella IgG levels, using a commercial immunoassay method with final fluorescent detection (ELFA). One hundred and twenty-two women had been vaccinated against rubella. Geometric mean concentrations (GMC) were not associated with time since vaccination. GMC of rubella IgG among vaccinated and(More)