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The exceptionally broad species diversity of vascular plant genera in east Asian temperate forests, compared with their sister taxa in North America, has been attributed to the greater climatic diversity of east Asia, combined with opportunities for allopatric speciation afforded by repeated fragmentation and coalescence of populations through Late Cenozoic(More)
Solar cells are attractive candidates for clean and renewable power; with miniaturization, they might also serve as integrated power sources for nanoelectronic systems. The use of nanostructures or nanostructured materials represents a general approach to reduce both cost and size and to improve efficiency in photovoltaics. Nanoparticles, nanorods and(More)
We report electrical properties of hybrid structures consisting of arrays of nanowire field-effect transistors integrated with the individual axons and dendrites of live mammalian neurons, where each nanoscale junction can be used for spatially resolved, highly sensitive detection, stimulation, and/or inhibition of neuronal signal propagation. Arrays of(More)
We show that nanowire field-effect transistor (NWFET) arrays fabricated on both planar and flexible polymeric substrates can be reproducibly interfaced with spontaneously beating embryonic chicken hearts in both planar and bent conformations. Simultaneous recordings from glass microelectrode and NWFET devices show that NWFET conductance variations are(More)
We demonstrate that semiconductor nanowires can be translated, rotated, cut, fused and organized into nontrivial structures using holographic optical traps. The holographic approach to nano-assembly allows for simultaneous independent manipulation of multiple nanowires, including relative translation and relative rotation.
Large scale energy storage system with low cost, high power, and long cycle life is crucial for addressing the energy problem when connected with renewable energy production. To realize grid-scale applications of the energy storage devices, there remain several key issues including the development of low-cost, high-performance materials that are(More)
Graphene and related two-dimensional crystals and hybrid systems showcase several key properties that can address emerging energy needs, in particular for the ever growing market of portable and wearable energy conversion and storage devices. Graphene's flexibility, large surface area, and chemical stability, combined with its excellent electrical and(More)
Glucose enzyme biosensors have been shown useful for a range of applications from medical diagnosis, bioprocess monitoring, to beverage industry and environmental monitoring. We present here a highly sensitive glucose enzyme sensor based on Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs)-polyaniline (PAni) hydrogel heterostructures. High-density PtNPs were homogeneously loaded(More)
MnO2 is considered one of the most promising pseudocapactive materials for high-performance supercapacitors given its high theoretical specific capacitance, low-cost, environmental benignity, and natural abundance. However, MnO2 electrodes often suffer from poor electronic and ionic conductivities, resulting in their limited performance in power density and(More)
Planar supercapacitors have recently attracted much attention owing to their unique and advantageous design for 2D nanomaterials based energy storage devices. However, improving the electrochemical performance of planar supercapacitors still remains a great challenge. Here we report for the first time a novel, high-performance in-plane supercapacitor based(More)