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There is considerable debate In economics literatmre on ensure that the equilibrium flow of licensing higher-whether a decision by developing countries to strengthen qualitv goods meets these objectives. When the South their protectiot of intellectual property rights (IPRs) will strengthens its patent rights, copying by licensees is made increase or reduce(More)
Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining is the routine diagnostic method for breast cancer (BC), and large amounts of HE stained histopathological images are available for analysis. It is emergent to develop computational methods to efficiently and objectively analyze these images, with the aim of providing potentially better diagnostic and prognostic information(More)
The Policy Research Working Paper Series disseminates the findings of work in progress to encourage the exchange of ideas about development issues. An objective of the series is to get the findings out quickly, even if the presentations are less than fully polished. The papers carry the names of the authors and should be cited accordingly. The findings,(More)
AIMS Altered expression of epithelial or stromal caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is observed in various types of human cancers. However, the clinical significance of Cav-1 expression in gastric cancer (GC) remains largely unknown. The present study aims to explore the clinicopathological significance and prognostic value of both tumor cells and cancer associated(More)
Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) expression deficiency and autophagy in tumor stromal fibroblasts (hereafter fibroblasts) are involved in tumor proliferation and progression, particularly in breast and prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to detect the expression of fibroblastic Cav-1 and LC3B, markers of autophagy, in gastric cancer (GC) and to analyze their(More)
Little is known on the immune response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in gastric cancer (GC). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of NACT on tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in patients with GC. Expressions of CD4+ and CD8+ TILs and identified co-inhibitory B7-H4 molecule were examined by immunohistochemical(More)
Primary gastrointestinal diffuse large B cell lymphoma (PGI-DLBCL) is a relatively rare malignancy with limited results on clinical characteristics and carcinogenesis. Chromosome instability (CIN) is a hallmark of cancer cells, including lymphoma. As a key component of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), BubR1 plays a crucial role in maintaining genome(More)
We develop a dynamic general-equilibrium model of a Southern economy in which one firm type devotes resources to licensing new technologies for producing higher-quality goods from the North and another firm type expends resources to imitate the technologies. The licensee firm shares in the temporary monopoly rents with the Northern firm, with the rent share(More)