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Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) has infected human beings for thousands of years, but knowledge about the infection and its pathogenesis is only recently emerging. The virus can be transmitted from mother to child, through sexual contact, and through contaminated blood products. There are areas in Japan, sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, and South(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the expression of the activation markers human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR and CD38 antigen on CD8+ T-lymphocytes in HIV-infected subjects and HIV-negative controls. DESIGN Two- and three-colour flow-cytometric analysis. METHODS Fresh peripheral venous blood was obtained from 16 HIV-infected subjects, representing four different stages(More)
During the rapid spread of HIV-1 in humans, the main (M) group of HIV-1 has evolved into ten distinct subtypes, undergone countless recombination events and diversified extensively. The impact of this extreme genetic diversity on the phenotype of HIV-1 has only recently become a research focus, but early findings indicate that the dominance of HIV-1 subtype(More)
This study examined the relationship between ex vivo human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fitness and viral genetic diversity during the course of HIV-1 disease. Primary HIV-1 isolates from 10 patients at different time points were competed against control HIV-1 strains in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures to determine relative(More)
The main (M) group of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is responsible for the global AIDS epidemic while HIV-1 group O (outlier) and HIV type 2 are endemic only in west and central Africa. The failure of HIV-2 and especially HIV-1 group O to spread following the initial zoonotic jumps is not well understood. This study was designed to examine the(More)
BACKGROUND CRF02_AG is the predominant HIV strain circulating in West and West Central Africa. The aim of this study was to test whether this predominance is associated with a higher in vitro replicative fitness relative to parental subtype A and G viruses. Primary HIV-1 isolates (10 CRF02_AG, 5 subtype A and 5 subtype G) were obtained from a well-described(More)
BACKGROUND Changes in virulence during an epidemic are common among pathogens, but still unexplored in the case of HIV-1. Here we used primary human cells to study the replicative fitness of primary HIV-1 isolates from untreated patients, comparing historical (1986-1989) and recent samples (2002-2003). METHODS Head-to-head dual virus infection/competition(More)
To explore the evolutionary dynamics and molecular transmission patterns of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in depth among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Shanghai, we constructed phylogenetic tree and genetic transmission networks based on 1, 152 pol sequences from MSM, 282 from other risk groups and 795 references. Phylogenetic analyses identified two distinct major(More)
Drug design, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and drug resistance studies have focused almost exclusively on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), resulting in limited information for patients infected with HIV-2 and for those dually infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2. In this study, 20 patients, 12 infected with HIV-2 and 8 dually infected with HIV-1 and(More)