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Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) has infected human beings for thousands of years, but knowledge about the infection and its pathogenesis is only recently emerging. The virus can be transmitted from mother to child, through sexual contact, and through contaminated blood products. There are areas in Japan, sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, and South(More)
This study examined the relationship between ex vivo human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fitness and viral genetic diversity during the course of HIV-1 disease. Primary HIV-1 isolates from 10 patients at different time points were competed against control HIV-1 strains in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures to determine relative(More)
During the rapid spread of HIV-1 in humans, the main (M) group of HIV-1 has evolved into ten distinct subtypes, undergone countless recombination events and diversified extensively. The impact of this extreme genetic diversity on the phenotype of HIV-1 has only recently become a research focus, but early findings indicate that the dominance of HIV-1 subtype(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the expression of the activation markers human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR and CD38 antigen on CD8+ T-lymphocytes in HIV-infected subjects and HIV-negative controls. DESIGN Two- and three-colour flow-cytometric analysis. METHODS Fresh peripheral venous blood was obtained from 16 HIV-infected subjects, representing four different stages(More)
The main (M) group of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is responsible for the global AIDS epidemic while HIV-1 group O (outlier) and HIV type 2 are endemic only in west and central Africa. The failure of HIV-2 and especially HIV-1 group O to spread following the initial zoonotic jumps is not well understood. This study was designed to examine the(More)
BACKGROUND Changes in virulence during an epidemic are common among pathogens, but still unexplored in the case of HIV-1. Here we used primary human cells to study the replicative fitness of primary HIV-1 isolates from untreated patients, comparing historical (1986-1989) and recent samples (2002-2003). METHODS Head-to-head dual virus infection/competition(More)
Molecular markers, especially surface markers associated with type II, cytokine-dependent, alternatively activated macrophages (aaMF), remain scarce. Besides the earlier documented markers, macrophage mannose receptor and arginase 1, we demonstrated recently that murine aaMF are characterized by increased expression of found in inflammatory zone 1 (FIZZ1)(More)
Attempts to elicit broadly neutralizing antibody responses by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine antigens have been met with limited success. To better understand the requirements for cross-neutralization of HIV-1, we have characterized the neutralizing antibody specificities present in the sera of three asymptomatic individuals exhibiting(More)
Infection with HIV results in a progressive depletion of CD4+ T cells and leads to significant in vivo lymphocyte phenotype changes. In this regard, the expression of HLA-DR and CD38 on CD8+ T cells has been shown to increase dramatically with disease progression. We investigated the expression of both activation markers on CD4+ T cells in HIV-1-infected(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-induced T cell responses are depressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of persons with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), and levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma remain low even after completion of antituberculous therapy. Loss of MTB-reactive T cells through apoptotic mechanisms could account for this prolonged(More)