Guido Vanham

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Attempts to elicit broadly neutralizing antibody responses by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine antigens have been met with limited success. To better understand the requirements for cross-neutralization of HIV-1, we have characterized the neutralizing antibody specificities present in the sera of three asymptomatic individuals exhibiting(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-induced T cell responses are depressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of persons with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), and levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma remain low even after completion of antituberculous therapy. Loss of MTB-reactive T cells through apoptotic mechanisms could account for this prolonged(More)
BACKGROUND During HIV infection and/or antiretroviral therapy (ART), monocytes and macrophages exhibit a wide range of dysfunctions which contribute significantly to HIV pathogenesis and therapy-associated complications. Nevertheless, the molecular components which contribute to these dysfunctions remain elusive. We therefore applied a parallel approach of(More)
BACKGROUND CRF02_AG is the predominant HIV strain circulating in West and West Central Africa. The aim of this study was to test whether this predominance is associated with a higher in vitro replicative fitness relative to parental subtype A and G viruses. Primary HIV-1 isolates (10 CRF02_AG, 5 subtype A and 5 subtype G) were obtained from a well-described(More)
The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors UC-781 and TMC120-R147681 (Dapivirine) effectively prevented human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in cocultures of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and T cells, representing primary targets in sexual transmission. Both drugs had a favorable therapeutic index. A 24-h treatment with 1,000 nM UC-781 or(More)
BACKGROUND The immune system exerts a diversifying selection pressure on HIV through cellular, humoral and innate mechanisms. This pressure drives viral evolution throughout infection. A better understanding of the natural immune pressure on the virus during infection is warranted, given the clinical interest in eliciting and sustaining an immune response(More)
Exposure of HIV-1 to dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN)-expressing B-lymphoblast Raji cells (Raji/DC-SIGN) but not to wild-type Raji/0 cells results in the capture of HIV-1 particles to the cells as measured by the quantification of cell-associated p24 antigen. Cocultivation of HIV-1-captured(More)
BACKGROUND High concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been previously observed in the genital fluids of women enrolled in microbicide trials and may explain observed increased HIV transmission in some of these trials. Although the longitudinal nature of these studies allows within-subject comparisons of post-product levels to baseline levels,(More)
To evaluate the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral DNA load in patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers, a SYBR Green-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed. HTLV-1 proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)(More)
Immunotherapy aims to assist the natural immune system in achieving control over viral infection. Various immunotherapy formats have been evaluated in either therapy-naive or therapy-experienced HIV-infected patients over the last 20 years. These formats included non-antigen specific strategies such as cytokines that stimulate immunity or suppress the viral(More)