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—The constraints on the design of CMOS operational amplifiers with rail-to-rail input range for extremely low supply voltage operation, are addressed. Two design approaches for amplifiers based on complementary input differential pairs and a single input pair, respectively, are presented. The first realizes a feedforward action to accommodate the(More)
BACKGROUND Tobacco smoking reduces appetite and body weight. Cessation of smoking leads to hyperphagia and weight gain. Food intake is a function of meal number (MN) and meal size (MZ) (i.e., Food intake = MN x MZ). The effect of nicotine on these feeding components and their relationships to dopamine and serotonin in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA)(More)
This paper presents program pulse characterization in an 8-Mb BJT-selected Phase-Change Memory test chip. Experimental results of the impact of the bit-line resistance over programming pulses efficiency are provided. Furthermore, in order to compensate for spreads in cell physical parameters in an array portion, a non-conventional staircase-down program(More)
— This paper presents a comparison between two of the most popular charge pump structures: the Dickson charge pump and the cascade of voltage doublers. The comparison has been carried out considering the power efficiency as the main parameter of interest. The discussion is supported by theoretical analysis and experimental results. To compare the two(More)