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Dendritic cells (DCs) show a remarkable functional plasticity in the recognition of Aspergillus fumigatus and orchestrate the antifungal immune resistance in the lungs. Here, we show that thymosin alpha 1, a naturally occurring thymic peptide, induces functional maturation and interleukin-12 production by fungus-pulsed DCs through the p38 mitogen-activated(More)
Melanoma development is a multi-step process arising from a series of genetic and epigenetic events. Although the sequential stages involved in progression from melanocytes to malignant melanoma are clearly defined, our current understanding of the mechanisms leading to melanoma onset is still incomplete. Growing evidence show that the activation of(More)
PURPOSE Despite the high and increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in athletes, allergy diagnostics is not part of the routine medical examination in sports medicine. This study reports the development and validation of an easy and reliable questionnaire for screening allergy in athletes. METHODS AQUA was derived from the European Community(More)
Thymosin alpha1 (Talpha1), a naturally occurring thymic peptide, primes dendritic cells (DCs) for antifungal T-helper type 1 resistance through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signaling. As TLR9 signaling also activates the immuno-suppressive pathway of tryptophan catabolism via indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), we examined Talpha1 for possible induction of(More)
This consensus document is aimed at reviewing evidence that the rhinitis-asthma links have peculiar features in athletes. Beside a review of epidemological data on the high prevalence of rhinitis and asthma in athletes, the effects on intense physical exercise on the immune system and repiratory functions are discussed, with special reference to the role of(More)
I almost every country, the proportion of people over 60 years of age is growing faster than any other age group, as a result of longer life expectancy and declining fertility rates. In Europe, the median age is already the highest in the world, and in 2050 there are projected to be 88.5 million Americans 65 years old or older — more than double the 40.3(More)
In this issue of PLoS Medicine, Doshi and colleagues argue that the full clinical trial reports of authorized drugs should be made publicly available to enable independent re-analysis of drugs’ benefits and risks [1]. We offer comments on their call for openness from a European Union drug regulatory perspective. For the purpose of this discussion, we(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neutrophin exerting an important role in the development and functions of the central and peripheral nervous system. However, it has recently been documented that several immune cells - such as mast cells, lymphocytes and eosinophils - produce, store and release NGF. Moreover, NGF high and low affinity receptors are widely(More)
In this study we have investigated the effects of thymosin alpha 1 (T alpha 1) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), singly or in combination with cyclophosphamide (CY), on tumor growth, survival and cytotoxicity in C57Bl/6NCrlBR mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL). Combined administration of T alpha 1 plus IL-2, after CY treatment, was much more effective than use of(More)
Drugs are approved by regulatory agencies on the basis of their assessment of whether the available evidence indicates that the benefits of the drug outweigh its risks. In recent years, regulatory agencies have been criticized both for being overly tolerant of risks or being excessively risk-averse, which reflects the challenge in determining an appropriate(More)