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BACKGROUND In a recent intervention study, the daily supplementation with 200 mg monomeric and oligomeric flavanols (MOF) from grape seeds for 8 weeks revealed a vascular health benefit in male smokers. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of MOF consumption on the gene expression profile of leukocytes and to assess changes in DNA(More)
Antioxidants are used on a very large scale to try to obtain and preserve optimal health. Nutraceuticals and food supplements frequently contain huge dosages of antioxidants. It is not generally recognised that high intake of antioxidants may also have adverse effects. Three antioxidants i.e. vitamin E, β-carotene and lipoic acid are used to illustrate(More)
N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) has been shown to exert cancer-protective mechanisms and effects in experimental models. We report here the results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase II chemoprevention trial with NAC in healthy smoking volunteers. The subjects were supplemented daily with 2 x 600 mg of oral tablets of NAC (n = 20) or placebo(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Impaired nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasorelaxation plays a key role in the development of diabetic vascular complications. We investigated the effect of hyperglycaemia on impaired vasoreactivity and a putative role therein of the AGE precursor methylglyoxal. METHODS The effects of high glucose and methylglyoxal on NO-dependent(More)
Ascorbic acid is a key antioxidant of the Central Nervous System (CNS). Under brain activity, ascorbic acid is released from glial reservoirs to the synaptic cleft, where it is taken up by neurons. In neurons, ascorbic acid scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during synaptic activity and neuronal metabolism where it is then oxidized to(More)
Chronic inflammation has been recognized as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. In this process, reactive oxygen species released by neutrophils may play an important role. The aim of the present study was to investigate the capacity of the major neutrophilic oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which is formed by myeloperoxidase (MPO),(More)
Respirable quartz has been classified as a human lung carcinogen (IARC, 1997). However, the mechanisms involved in quartz-induced carcinogenesis remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate acute DNA damage in epithelial lung cells from rats exposed to quartz. Since surface reactivity is considered to play a crucial role in the toxicity(More)
Liver disease is highly prevalent in the world. Oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation are the most important pathogenetic events in liver diseases, regardless the different etiology and natural course. N-acetyl-l-cysteine (the active form) (NAC) is being studied in diseases characterized by increased OS or decreased glutathione (GSH) level. NAC acts mainly(More)
The development and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been associated with increased oxidative stress or reduced antioxidant resources. Several indicators of oxidative stress, such as hydrogen peroxide exhalation, lipid peroxidation products and degraded proteins, are indeed elevated in COPD patients. As a result, the(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiovascular diseases are expanding to a major social-economic burden in the Western World and undermine man's deep desire for healthy ageing. Epidemiological studies suggest that flavanol-rich foods (e.g. grapes, wine, chocolate) sustain cardiovascular health. For an evidenced-based application, however, sound clinical data on their efficacy(More)